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博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》、《科技日报》、《健康时报》、《健康报》、《英语世界》、《英语知识》、《科技英语学习》、《科学之友》、《科学与文化》、《世界科学》、《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

止痛药物可使血压升高(图)  

2008-08-03 08:35:48|  分类: 医疗保健 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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止痛药物可使血压升高(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客 

Painkillers can raise blood pressure

by Peter Lavelle   胡德良

Where would we be without painkillers? In pain, that’s where – at least some of the time. They're amongst the most important and commonly used types of medication, known to us since 400 BC when Greek doctors advised their patients to chew on willow bark to relieve pain (they didn't know it at the time, but it contains aspirin).   若没有止痛药物,我们的情况将会怎样呢?我们会处于疼痛之中,起码有时会处于疼痛之中。止痛药物是最重要的、也是最为广泛应用的一种药物。早在公元前400年人们就了解了止痛药物,当时希腊的医生们建议病人咀嚼柳树皮以缓解疼痛。那时医生们不知道其原理,而事实是柳树皮中含有阿司匹林。
 Painkillers can cause side effects in some people – aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) like naprosyn and ibuprofen cause stomach bleeding and paracetamol can cause liver damage if you take too many tablets. But most people tolerate them well, and it's a lot better than being in pain.  在一些病例中,止痛药物可以引起副作用:如果服用剂量太大,阿司匹林和非类固醇抗炎药(NSAIDs)如萘普生和布洛芬可引起胃出血,而扑热息痛会对肝脏造成危害。但是,绝大多数人们能够完全忍受这些副作用,这要比忍受疼痛强得多。
 But over the last couple of years studies have linked NSAIDs with an increased risk of heart attack, taking a lot of the gloss off them.  然而在过去的几年中,研究发现非类固醇抗炎药可使心脏病发作的几率增加,使这类药物的作用逊色了许多。
 Now another study suggests that painkillers – even aspirin and paracetamol – can elevate blood pressure if taken continuously.  现在另外一项研究表明,若不断地服用止痛药物(甚至包括阿司匹林和扑热息痛在内),会使血压升高。
 Researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, looked at 16,031 male health professionals – average age 65 – with no history of hypertension. They got detailed information about what painkillers the men took and how often; and followed them over a four year period, measuring their blood pressure along the way. By the end of the four years, nearly 2000 men had developed high blood pressure.  波士顿布莱根妇女医院和哈佛大学医学院的研究人员观察了16,031名健康的男性职业人员,他们平均年龄65岁,没有高血压史。有关这些男性服用的是哪类止痛药物,服用的频度如何,研究人员获得了详细的信息。然后研究人员对他们进行了为期四年的跟踪观察,同时也不断地为他们进行血压测量。四年结束时,其中有将近2,000人患上了高血压。
 The researchers did take onto account things like age, weight, smoking status, physical activity and diet, alcohol intake and family history of hypertension of each man.  研究人员的确考虑了如下因素,如每个人的年龄、体重、吸烟情况、身体活动情况、饮食、酒精摄入情况和家庭高血压史等情况。
 Those who used acetaminophen (known as paracetamol in Australia) six or seven days a week had a 34 per cent greater risk of hypertension compared to non-users. Those who took aspirin had a 26 per cent greater risk and those who took NSAIDs had a 38 per cent higher risk.  那些每周服用六、七天醋氨酚(在澳大利亚称为扑热息痛)的人,比不服用该药物的人患高血压的几率增加了34%,服用阿司匹林的人患高血压的几率增加了26%,服用非类固醇抗炎药的人患高血压的几率增加了38%
 The more pills they took, the higher the risk. Those who took between 6 and 14 pills a week, for example, raised their risk by 53 per cent (if they took paracetamol) and 32 per cent (taking aspirin).  服用的剂量越大,患高血压的几率也就越高。例如,每周服用614片的人,若服用扑热息痛,患高血压的几率增加53%,若服用阿司匹林,患高血压的几率则增加32%
 Now, this didn’t conclusively prove that it was the painkillers that raised the blood pressure. There could have been other factors at work causing it.  但是,这也不能最终证明就是这些止痛药物使得血压升高了,还可能有其他起作用的因素引起了血压的升高。
 Also, the absolute increase in risk wasn't large. Over the age of 65, there's a three per cent risk of a man developing high blood pressure for the first time in any one year. So taking painkillers might raise that to 4 per cent – not a large increase.  况且,患高血压几率的绝对增加值并不高。年龄超过65岁的男人,每过一年首次患高血压几率就会增加3%,而服用止痛药物可能会将该几率提高到4%,提高的幅度并不大。
 But previous studies have shown a link between painkillers and hypertension – and shown that it exists in women too – say the researchers. Other studies have showed that analgesics reduce the effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs by raising blood pressure.  然而研究人员指出,先前的研究表明:服用止痛药物跟高血压之间是有联系的,这种联系也存在于妇女当中。其他研究表明,止痛剂可以使血压升高,从而降低抗高血压药物的疗效。
 And when you consider how often and many millions of people regularly take painkillers, the number of people with elevated blood pressure due to painkillers could run into many, many thousands world wide.  考虑到数以千万计的人们经常服用止痛药物,在全世界范围内由于止痛药物引起的血压升高的人数会达到数以百万计。
 High blood pressure is one of the contributing factors for arteriosclerosis, the disease of the arteries which is the cause of heart disease and stroke. Together they account for 40 per cent of all deaths.  高血压是动脉硬化的形成因素之一,动脉硬化是引起心脏病和中风的动脉疾病,心脏病和中风造成的死亡占所有死亡情况的40%
 How might painkillers raise blood pressure? The researchers don't know exactly. They may cause the kidney to retain salt and fluid, or they may increase spasm in the arteries.  止痛药物是如何使血压升高的呢?研究人员还没有确切地了解这个情况。止痛药物可能会导致肾脏保留盐分和液体,或者可能会导致动脉痉挛的发生。
 Does it mean you should clean out your medicine cabinet and grin and bear the pain? Not necessarily.  这是否意味着你应该将止痛药物从药柜子里清理出去呢?然后咧着嘴忍受疼痛?大可不必。
 If you use painkillers occasionally to relieve acute pain, then the risk is small, and not a reason not to take them. But if you're taking them continuously, for example for arthritis or some other chronic condition, then it may be a good idea to talk to your doctor to see if there are alternative ways of preventing your symptoms – especially if you already suffer from high blood pressure or another risk factor for arterial disease, like obesity, high blood fats, smoking and or a family history of heart disease.  如果你偶尔服用止痛药物来缓解剧烈疼痛,那么因此患高血压的几率是很小的,这不足以作为拒绝服用止痛药物的理由。如果你正在不断地服用止痛药物,比如说为了治疗关节炎或某种其他的慢性病,那么跟医生谈谈不失为一个好主意,看看有没有替代疗法来消除你的症状。特别是如果你已经患上高血压,或者已经拥有患上动脉疾病的另一个危险因素,象肥胖症、高血脂、吸烟、心脏病家史等,你就更应该找医生谈谈了。
 If you do need to be on painkillers, then your doctor may need to monitor your blood pressure.  如果你确实需要服用止痛药物,那么医生也许需要监视你的血压。

译自:《澳大利亚广播公司》网站    

月亮飞船经典日志导读

 在成年人中发现“有益”脂肪(图)  消炎可以对抗衰老吗?(图)
 预防中风的新药——阿哌沙班  消防员易患癌症(图)
 男性不育症与侵袭性前列腺癌  婴儿居室里的苦恼(图)
 造成血压波动的诸多因素(图)  可以嗅出疾病的电子鼻(图)
 孩子为何如此无精打采?  心脏病和糖尿病相关(图)
 白血病人的化疗用药剂量  基因疗法防治阳痿(图)

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