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博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》《科技日报》《健康时报》《健康报》《英语世界》《英语知识》《科技英语学习》《科学之友》《科学与文化》《世界科学》《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

太阳能发电的最佳方法(图)  

2009-02-22 09:13:10|  分类: 尖端科技 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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太阳能发电的最佳方法(图) - 月亮飞船 - 月亮飞船的博客

技术人员正在准备利用太阳能

Metallised balloons may be the best way to make solar electricity

From Economist.com  胡德良

 SOLAR cells are expensive, so it makes sense to use them efficiently. One way of doing so is to concentrate sunlight onto them. That means a smaller area of cell can be used to convert a given amount of light into electricity. This, though, brings another cost—that of the mirrors needed to do the concentrating. Traditionally, these have been large pieces of polished metal, steered by electric motors to keep the sun’s rays focused on the cell. However, Cool Earth Solar of Livermore, California, has come up with what it hopes will be a better, cheaper alternative: balloons.  太阳能电池很昂贵,所以进行高效利用是有意义的。高效利用的一个办法是将阳光集中在太阳能电池上,那就意味着利用面积较小的电池把一定量的阳光转化为电能。然而,这个想法产生了另外一项花费:用来集中阳光的镜面。传统的做法是,利用大块的抛光金属片作为镜面,利用电动机来调整镜面的方向,以保持太阳光线在电池上的集中。可是,加州利沃莫尔的“酷地太阳能公司”研制出一种可替代金属片的材料——气球,这种材料可望更实用、更便宜。
 Anyone who has children will be familiar with aluminised party balloons. Such balloons are made from metal-coated plastic. Cool Earth’s insight was that if you coat only one half of a balloon, leaving the other transparent, the inner surface of the coated half will act as a concave mirror. Put a solar cell at the focus of that mirror and you have an inexpensive solar-energy collector.  任何家有小孩的人对铝膜晚会气球都不会陌生,这样的气球是使用涂有金属的塑料制作的。酷地太阳能公司有个独到的认识:如果只给气球的一半涂上金属,让另一半透光,那么涂有金属的那一半内表面就会象一个凹面镜。将一块太阳能电池置于凹面镜的焦点上,就可以做成廉价的太阳能收集器了。
 Cool Earth’s balloons are rather larger than traditional party balloons, having a diameter of about two-and-a-half metres (eight feet), but otherwise they look quite similar. The solar cell apart, they are ridiculously cheap: the kilogram of plastic from which each balloon is made costs about $2. The cell, whose cost is a more closely guarded secret, is 15-20cm across and is water-cooled. That is necessary because the balloon concentrates sunlight up to 400 times, and without this cooling it would quickly burn out.Like a more conventional mirror, a solar balloon of this sort will have to be turned to face the sun as it moves through the sky, and Cool Earth is now testing various ways of doing this. However, the focus of the light on the solar cell can also be fine-tuned by changing the air-pressure within the balloon, and thus the curvature of the mirror.  酷地太阳能公司的气球比传统的晚会气球大出许多,直径大约为两米半(8英尺),要不是这样的话,两种气球看起来就非常相似了。除了太阳能电池以外,其余的材料都是极为便宜的,制造气球的塑料每公斤价格为2美元。太阳能电池的成本是个秘密,而且对该秘密保守得较为严格。这种电池直径为1520 厘米,是用水来冷却的。这么做很有必要,因为气球集中起来的光线强度高达普通阳光的400倍,若不进行冷却,气球很快就会被烧坏。跟传统的镜面一样,这种太阳能气球在天空中飞行时也必须朝向太阳。目前,酷地太阳能公司正在进行使其朝向太阳的各种方法测试。然而,通过改变气球内部的气压,可以对照射在太阳能电池上的光线焦点进行微调,因此也可以改变镜面的曲率。
 The result, according to Rob Lamkin, Cool Earth’s boss, is a device whose installation costs only $1 per watt of generating capacity. That is about the same as a large coal-fired power station. Of course, balloons do not last as long as conventional power stations (each is estimated to have a working life of about a year). On the other hand, the fuel is free. When all the sums are done, Mr Lamkin reckons the firm will be able to sell electricity to California’s grid for 11 cents a kilowatt-hour, the state’s target price for renewable energy, and still turn a tidy profit.That belief will soon be put to the test. Cool Earth plans to open a 1-megawatt plant this summer. If it works, more will follow and, in the deserts of California and elsewhere, it will be party time for solar-energy enthusiasts.  酷地太阳能公司的老板罗布·拉姆金说,结果该装置每瓦特发电能力的安装费仅为1美元,这大约相当于建造大型煤电站时每瓦特发电能力所需的费用。当然,气球不象传统发电站那样可以持续利用很长时间,据估计每个气球的使用寿命大约为1年。但从另外一个角度来说,气球发电的燃料是免费的。拉姆金先生估计,把所有的费用都计算在内,公司将能够以每度电11美分的价格卖给加州高压输电网,这个价格是该州为可再生能源所制定的目标价,此外还能够赚取一笔可观的利润。酷地太阳能公司很快将要对这个想法进行试验。今年夏季,酷地太阳能公司计划要开办一个发电能力为一兆瓦的工厂。如果能够行得通,更多的其他公司将会效仿,那么对于热衷于太阳能的人们来说,加州的沙漠地带以及其他地方将如同晚会的现场一般。

译自:From Economist.com(Dec 30th 2008 

月亮飞船经典日志导读

 “粘住”逃车(图)  百万像素的成像设备阵列(图)
 精彩宇宙图片欣赏5(组图)  太阳能燃料技术向前跨越了两步(图)
 为超新星工厂拍下的X光照片(图)  美国为防生化武器所做的努力(图)
 最具威力的粒子加速器(图)  最小的奥林匹克五环结构(图)
 又出现了一个硅谷?(图)  2011年诺贝尔化学奖揭晓!(图)
 玻璃洁净不结雾(图)  宇宙中的第一批黑洞(图+视频)

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