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博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》《科技日报》《健康时报》《健康报》《英语世界》《英语知识》《科技英语学习》《科学之友》《科学与文化》《世界科学》《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

可取代摄像镜头的纤维(图)  

2009-07-16 15:20:43|  分类: 尖端科技 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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可取代摄像镜头的纤维(图) - 月亮飞船 - 月亮飞船的博客

将光敏探测器置入非常细的纤维之中,无需镜头就可以产生图像。

Futuristic Fibers Could Replace Camera Lenses

By Phil Berardelli   胡德良

 Picture a wall that stares back at you. Or a uniform that shows a soldier a 360-degree view of the battlefield. Both scenarios are possible courtesy of a new generation of flexible, translucent fibers developed by researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge. These so-called multimaterial fibers can turn incoming light waves into images without the need for a camera lens. And unlike fiber optic cables, they can transmit images that have been captured across their entire length.

 试想象一下:一堵墙可以盯着你看,或者一套军服可以全方位地为士兵提供有关战场的可视信号。借助于新一代具有柔韧性的半透明纤维,两种设想都有可能实现。这种所谓的复合材料纤维是由剑桥市麻省理工学院的研究人员开发的,可以在不用摄像头的情况下将传入的光波转化为图像。跟光缆不同,这种纤维可以传输整块面料所捕捉到的图像信号。

 Current cameras rely on lenses to produce a recognizable image. The curved glass or plastic of a lens focuses light waves reflected off an object onto a surface that can display the resulting images, either film or, in the case of digital cameras, charged-coupled devices. The idea has worked well for decades, but it's always contained an Achilles' heel: Damage the lens, and you lose or diminish the ability to see.

 目前的摄像设备依靠镜头来产生可辨认的图像信号。镜头所用的曲面玻璃或塑料将反射自物体的光波聚集于一个可以展示成像的表面上,这种表面要么是胶卷,要么是数码摄像机中的电荷耦合器件。几十年来,该原理运行得很好,但总是有一个致命的弱点:如果镜头损坏,就会失去或减弱摄像能力。

 The multimaterial fibers developed by the MIT team could solve this problem and provide a host of other benefits. The fibers consist of an array of metal electrodes connected to a semiconductor and are covered by an insulating polymer sheath. The semiconductor layer in the fiber detects light and relays signals via the electrodes to a microprocessor, which combines the signals from an array of the fibers to determine the light's intensity, direction, and color. Visualization software then takes that data and recreates the source image and displays it on a monitor screen. And the whole process is accomplished without a lens.

 由麻省理工学院研究小组开发的这种复合材料纤维可以解决这个问题,而且还拥有许多其他的优越性。这种纤维由一排连接在半导体上的金属电极组成,被聚合体绝缘层所覆盖。纤维中的半导体层可以探测光源,并通过电极将信号传输到一个微处理器上,微处理器结合来自纤维纹理的信号,来确定光的强度、方向以及颜色。然后由可视化软件获取这些数据资料,再现源图像,并将其展示在监视屏上。这整个过程都是在没有镜头的情况下完成的。

 In experiments reported online this week in Nano Letters, the MIT researchers were able to create an image of a smiley face on a video screen by placing a web of the fibers in front of the drawn image. They also demonstrated how the multimaterial fibers could be woven into an optical fabric--a flexible camera--that could serve as stealth wallpaper or be incorporated into a soldier's uniform to scan the battlefield in all directions and send images to a video monitor in the soldier's helmet.

 根据本周《纳米快报》在线版上发表的实验报告:在画出的一幅笑脸前放一张复合材料纤维网,麻省理工学院的研究人员们能够使这张笑脸显示于电视屏幕上。研究人员还演示了如何把复合材料纤维编织成光敏材料织品——相当于可以变形的摄像机,可以做成执行秘密任务的壁纸,也可以置入士兵的军服里,用来全方位地扫描战场,然后将图像发送到士兵头盔里的一个可视监视器上。

 Materials scientist and co-author Yoel Fink says the technology eliminates the drawback of lenses by allowing the entire surface area of the fabric to collect images. So if one part gets damaged or degraded, the remainder can still function.

 物料科学家、实验报告的合作者约尔·芬克说,这项技术消除了镜头的缺点,织品的整个表面区域都可以用来搜集图像。因此,如果一部分遭到破坏或发生退化,其余部分仍然可以运行。

 It's an interesting concept that "should inspire others to find ways to integrate nanoscale components," says materials scientist Rod Ruoff of the University of Texas, Austin. "I found myself wondering, for example, whether such components might conceivably be embedded in glass fibers, as well as in polymer fibers."

 “这是个有趣的观念,这个观念应该会激励其他科学家找到融入纳米级成分的办法,”德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校的物料科学家罗德·劳夫说,“例如,我不由得想到,纳米级成分或许可以置入玻璃纤维以及聚合体纤维之中。”

译自:美国《科学》杂志网站 (10 July 2009

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