登录  
 加关注
查看详情
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

用博客作平台传播科学新闻 以翻译为途径普及科学知识

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》《科技日报》《健康时报》《健康报》《英语世界》《英语知识》《科技英语学习》《科学之友》《科学与文化》《世界科学》《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

在地球上创造的黑洞环境(图)  

2009-10-25 08:59:05|  分类: 尖端科技 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

在地球上创造的黑洞环境(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

一个小塑料球(类似太阳的物体)被激光束袭击后释放出X射线,部分X射线又引爆了一个硅球(紫色和蓝色球体)。

Black Hole Conditions, Right Here on Earth

By Phil Berardelli  胡德良

 A team of researchers has created conditions analogous to those found outside of a black hole by blasting a plastic pellet with high-energy laser beams. The advance should sharpen insights into the behavior of matter and energy in extreme conditions.

 一组研究人员利用高能激光束引爆了一个小塑料球,创造了类似于在黑洞外围所发现的情况。这一研究上的进展可以使科学家们对极端环境中物质和能量的性质有一个更加清晰的认识。

 Astronomers can't observe black holes directly because their immense gravity won't let light escape. Instead, they have focused on what they can see, namely, the surrounding cloud of swirling matter, known as an accretion disk. When crunched and heated by the black hole's gravitational energy, these disks glow in x-ray light. Analyzing the spectra of these x-rays gives researchers clues about the physics of the black hole.

 天文学家们无法直接观察到黑洞,因为即使光线也无法逃脱黑洞的巨大引力。因此,科学家们把视线集中在可以看到的物质上,即:周围被称为“吸积盘”的旋转的物质云团。吸积盘跟黑洞的引力能之间发生摩擦之后温度升高,发出X射线光。研究人员通过分析X射线的光谱,对黑洞的物理性质有所了解。

 Scientists don't know precisely how much energy is required to produce such x-rays, however. Part of the difficulty is a process called photoionization, in which the high-energy photons conveying the x-rays strip away electrons from atoms within the accretion disk. That lost energy alters the characteristics of the x-ray spectra, making it more difficult to measure precisely the total amount of energy being emitted.

 然而,研究人员并不知道到底需要多少能量才能产生这样的X射线,难处之一在于一种叫做“光电离”的过程。在光电离过程中,传播X射线的高能光子将电子从吸积盘内的原子中分离出去,这样损失掉的能量就会改变X射线的光谱特点。结果,要想确切地测算出所释放的总能量就更加困难了。

 To get a better handle on how much energy those photoionized atoms consume, researchers at Osaka University in Japan attempted to recreate conditions in the region of an accretion disk that would be nearest a black hole. They zapped a tiny plastic pellet with 12 laser beams fired simultaneously and allowed some of the resulting radiation to blast a pellet of silicon, a common element in accretion disks.

 为了更加清楚地了解光电离原子消耗了多少能量,日本大阪大学的研究人员做了尝试,再现了吸积盘中距离黑洞最近区域的环境。他们利用12道激光束同时袭击一个小小的塑料球,再利用所形成的部分辐射引爆一个硅球,而硅是吸积盘中的一种常见元素。

 The synchronized laser strikes caused the plastic pellet to implode, creating an extremely hot and dense core of gas, or plasma. That turned the pellet into "a source of [immensely powerful] x-rays similar to those from an accretion disk around a black hole," says physicist and lead author Shinsuke Fujioka. As Fujioka and colleagues report online this week in Nature Physics, the x-rays photoionized the silicon, and that interaction mimicked the emissions observed in accretion disks. By measuring the energy lost from the photoionization, the researchers could measure total energy emitted from the implosion and use it to improve their understanding of the behavior of x-rays emitted by accretion disks.

 同步激光的袭击引起了小塑料球的内爆,产生了温度极高的浓密气核,或者称之为等离子体。“袭击使小塑料球变成了一个能量极高的X射线源,释放出类似来自黑洞周围吸积盘中的X射线,”该研究的首要发起人、物理学家藤冈申介说。藤冈及同事在本周《自然-物理学》杂志在线版上报道:X射线使硅产生了光电离,这种反应酷似在吸积盘中所观察到的能量释放。通过测算这个光电离过程所消耗的能量,研究人员能够计算出内爆所释放的总能量,然后利用总能量来进一步了解吸积盘所释放的X射线的性质。

 "Fujioka et al. have shown us a versatile new way to explore the processes at work near black holes," says physicist R. Paul Drake of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He says detailed examinations of the data should identify areas for improvement "in interpreting similar data from astronomical observations."

 “藤冈等研究人员向我们展示了一个通用的新方法,该方法可以用来探索黑洞附近物质的运行过程,”密歇根大学安娜堡分校的物理学家R·保罗·德雷克说。他指出,对这些数据进行仔细分析,肯定有助于进一步说明天文观测中得来的类似资料。


译自:美国《科学》杂志网站(19 October 2009

       欢迎光临我博:http://huzhangao.blog.163.com/

 


  评论这张
 
阅读(7969)| 评论(17)

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2018