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博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》、《科技日报》、《健康时报》、《健康报》、《英语世界》、《英语知识》、《科技英语学习》、《科学之友》、《科学与文化》、《世界科学》、《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

人造草坪对年轻球员安全吗?  

2010-04-10 17:19:28|  分类: 医疗保健 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Artificial Turf: Injuries and Chronic Pain in Youth Players

Jay Williams   胡德良

  Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of third-generation artificial turf fields for both training and match play. These surfaces are so popular that in 2001 FIFA established standards for turf fields and have approved them for events such as the U-17 World Cup. The advent of turf field has also prompted a large number of research studies comparing injury risks between artificial and grass fields. For the most part, these studies show that the incidence injuries such as ankle sprains and ACL tears are not increased when training or playing on turf. However, a common complaint of players who spend much of their practice time on turf is chronic pain. A new study out of Japan finds that neither acute injuries nor complaints of chronic pain are increased in youth players who train predominately artificial turf.

 在过去的几年中,利用第三代人造草坪足球场进行训练和比赛的情况有了显著的增加。这种场地表面非常受欢迎,2001年国际足联(FIFA)制定了人造草坪足球场的标准,批准可以将这种场地用于象青少年世界杯之类的赛事。人造草坪足球场的出现还引发了大量的研究,研究对人造草坪足球场和天然草坪足球场为球员带来伤害的风险进行了比较。这些研究在很大程度上证明,在人造草坪足球场上训练或比赛时,象踝关节扭伤和前交叉韧带撕裂这样的伤害情况并没有增加。然而,在人造草坪足球场上度过大部分踢球时间的运动员有一个共同的毛病——慢性疼痛。一项来自日本的新研究发现:主要在人造草坪足球场上训练的年轻球员,不管是急性损伤还是慢性疼痛,都没有增加。

 Researchers tracked six Japan Football Association affiliated youth teams for one year. Four of the teams trained exclusively or primarily on grass while the other two trained primarily on turf. Players on these teams ranged in age from 12 to 17 years. In all, 301 players participated in the study. Acute injuries and chronic pain complaints were recorded daily by each team’s medical staff. In addition, coaches recorded the amount time each player trained and plated of grass or turf.

 研究人员对日本足联下属的六个青少年足球队进行了一年的跟踪研究,其中四个队只在或主要在天然草坪上训练,两外两个队主要在人造草坪上训练。这些足球队中队员的年龄为1217岁。总共301名运动员参与了这项研究。急性损伤和慢性疼痛的情况每天都由各队的医务人员进行记录。此外,教练记录了每个运动员的训练时间和所在场地的性质(天然或人造)。

 The most common acute injuries suffered by the players were ankle sprains and contusions (bruises). Ankle sprains accounted for about half of all injuries. However, there were no differences in the injury rates (the number of injuries per hour of play) between the teams training on turf and grass. This was the case whether the injuries occurred during training or during matches.

 球员们最常见的急性损伤是踝关节扭伤和擦伤。踝关节扭伤大约占所有受伤情况的一半。然而,在人造草坪上和在天然草坪上训练的球队之间,受伤率(每小时在踢球过程中的受伤次数)没有区别。不管是在训练当中还是在比赛当中,发生受伤的情况都没有区别。

 Low back pain and knee pain accounted for most of the chronic pain complaints. Again there was no difference in the incidence of total number of complaints between the grass and turf teams. However, there was a small increase in the incidence of low back pain complaints in the teams that trained on turf.

 腰痛和膝关节痛在慢性疼痛中占绝大部分。在天然草坪球队和人造草坪球队之间,慢性疼痛的发生率仍然没有区别。可是,在人造草坪上训练的球队腰痛的发生率略微有所增加。

 The researchers re-examined their data to better understand why players who train on turf seem to have more chronic back pain. One key issue is the time the teams spent training on turf. The turf teams trained 33% more than the grass teams. They trained about 8.5 hours per week and the grass teams averaged around 6.5 hours. That is, turf teams held the equivalent of one extra session per week. Why this occurred is not known but it is not surprising that this group of players experienced more chronic pain.

 研究人员重新审查了他们所获得的数据,以便更加清楚地了解为何在人造草坪上训练的运动员似乎遭受更多的腰痛。一个关键问题是球队在人造草坪上训练时间的长短问题。人造草坪球队的训练比天然草坪球队多出33%:他们的训练时间为每周大约8.5小时,而天然草坪球队的训练时间每周平均大约为6.5小时。也就是说,相当于人造草坪球队每周多进行了一场训练。不清楚为什么会发生这种情况,但是这一组球员遭受了更多慢性疼痛的情况并不令人吃惊。

 Two broad conclusions can be drawn from this study. First, training on the new artificial turf fields does not increase a youth player’s susceptibility to either acute injury or chronic pain. Like most of the previous research into the safety of artificial turf fields, this study suggests that these fields are safe for young players to train on. Second, coaches should be aware that longer training, especially on turf, can raise the risk of chronic pain in young players. In this study low back pain was associated with time spent on turf. One advantage of artificial turf is that that it can be used throughout the year, regardless of weather. As a result, training sessions are less likely to be cancelled due to poor field conditions. Perhaps these “off days” due to weather actually allow young players to recover. While this study does not suggest that training on turf directly causes low back pain, it does suggest that coaches should monitor players closely in terms of chronic pain. They should be aware of the amount of time their teams train, especially on artificial turf.

 通过此次研究可以得出两个主要结论。第一、在这种新型人造草坪足球场上训练,不会使年轻球员更加容易受伤,对于急性损伤和慢性疼痛来说都是如此。跟以前大多数对人造草坪足球场的安全性所进行的研究一样,该研究表明年轻球员利用这种球场进行训练是安全的。第二、教练员们应该注意到,较长时间的训练,尤其是在人造草坪上进行训练,会增加年轻球员遭受慢性疼痛的风险。在该研究中发现,腰痛跟在人造草坪上训练时间的长短有关。人造草坪的一个优点在于,不管什么天气,一年四季都可以使用,因此训练的场次不大可能会由于糟糕的场地状况而被取消。也许,那些由于天气而停止训练的日子实际上帮助年轻球员们恢复了状态。尽管这项研究没有证明在人造草坪上进行训练会直接引起腰痛,但是通过该研究确实可以说明,教练员应该在慢性疼痛方面密切监视球员的情况,还应该注意到球队训练时间的长短,尤其是要注意在人造草坪上训练时间的长短。

译自:足球科学在线网(http://www.scienceofsocceronline.com/

原著:Jay WilliamsJanuary 8, 2010

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