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博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》、《科技日报》、《健康时报》、《健康报》、《英语世界》、《英语知识》、《科技英语学习》、《科学之友》、《科学与文化》、《世界科学》、《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

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人和牛体内共有的超级病菌  

2011-06-07 21:21:06|  分类: 医疗保健 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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New Superbug Found in Cows and People

by Jocelyn Kaiser    胡德良 

A novel form of deadly drug-resistant bacteria that hides from a standard test has turned up in Europe. Researchers found the so-called MRSA strain in both dairy cows and humans in the United Kingdom, suggesting that it might be passed from dairies to the general population. But before you toss your milk, don't panic: The superbug isn't a concern in pasteurized dairy products.    欧洲出现了一种致命的新型耐药菌,这种病菌可以逃避正常的检测。研究人员发现这种所谓的MRSA菌株在英国的奶牛和人们体内均有,表明该病菌可能是从牛奶场传播到普通人群中的。但是不用惊慌,不必把牛奶扔掉:食用经过巴氏灭菌处理的奶产品时,就不用担心这种超级病菌了。
 MRSA, short for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a drug-resistant form of the widespread and normally harmless S. aureus bacteria. Many people walk around with MRSA in their noses or on their skin yet don't get sick. But in some hospital patients and people with weakened immune systems, MRSA thrives, and it is blamed for about 19,000 hospital deaths a year in the United States.  MRSA是“耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌”的缩写形式,是分布广泛而通常无害的一种耐药金黄色葡萄球菌。许多人随身携带着MRSA,分布在鼻腔中和皮肤上,然而不会致病。但是,在一些住院病人和免疫系统虚弱的人们中,MRSA就会蔓延。在美国,MRSA每年造成19,000住院病人死亡。
 Mark Holmes of the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom and colleagues stumbled upon the new strain while studying mastitis, or infected udders, in U.K. dairy cows. Some milk samples from sick cows contained S. aureus bacteria that grew in the presence of antibiotics, which is one test for MRSAs. Yet the same samples turned up negative for the drug-defying bacterium when the team used PCR, a DNA amplification technique, to detect a gene called mecA, which is found in all MRSA strains.  英国剑桥大学的马克·霍姆斯及同事在研究英国奶牛的乳腺炎时,无意中发现了这种新菌株。一些来自病牛的奶样包含在抗生素环境中可以生长的金黄色葡萄球菌,这是一种检测MRSA的方法。然而,为了找出所有MRSA菌株都含有的一种叫做“mecA”的基因,研究小组利用PCR技术检测了同样奶样,可是没有显示出耐药菌。PCR技术是一种核酸体外扩增技术。
 The PCR test doesn't always pick up variants of the gene it's meant to detect, however. To check this, the researchers sent a cow S. aureus sample to the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Cambridge, which sequenced the bacterium's entire genome. "Lo and behold, there was a mecA gene there," one whose sequence overlapped with the better-known mecA by a surprisingly low 60%, Holmes said today in a press conference.  但是,PCR技术检测不能总是检测出本想查明的mecA基因变种。为了检测这种基因的变种,研究人员将一份含有金黄色葡萄球菌的奶样送往剑桥市韦尔科姆基金会桑格学院研究所,在那里对该病菌的所有基因组进行了测序。今天,霍姆斯在一次新闻发布会上说:仔细一瞧,果然有一个mecA基因!它的序列跟更为熟知的那种mecA基因相比,重叠率低得惊人,只有60%
 The researchers then looked for this mecA gene in people. They tested 74 samples of S. aureus isolated from people from the United Kingdom and Denmark that were drug resistant in the antibiotic growth test but not in the PCR test—most from carriers but some from patients who were sickened by MRSA. They found the new mecA in about two-thirds of the samples, they report today in The Lancet Infectious Diseases. A nearly identical mecA gene has also now been reported in human samples from Germany and Ireland.  然后,研究人员在人们当中寻找这种mecA基因,他们检测了从英国人和丹麦人身上分离出来的74份金黄色葡萄球菌样品,均属于在抗生素环境生长检测中具有耐药性,而在PCR技术检测中不具耐药性。其中多数人本身是带菌者,有些是由MRSA致病的病人。今天,研究人员在《柳叶刀-传染病》杂志上报道说,他们在大约三分之二的样品中发现了这种新型mecA基因。据报道,几乎完全一样的mecA基因也发现于德国人和爱尔兰人的样品中。
 The strain is still relatively rare—it probably makes up less than 1% of all detected MRSA cases, the U.K. team says. But its prevalence appears to have risen in the past decade. "More likely it's been around in the environment for a long time, and it's just getting into the human population," says University College Dublin microbiologist David Coleman, whose team reports on the Irish samples today in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.  英国的研究小组称,现在这种菌株还比较稀少,在所有已经发现的MRSA病例中占不到1%。但是在过去的十年中,患病率好像有上升的趋势。“这种菌株可能在环境中存在好长时间了,只是刚刚进入人类体内,”都柏林大学微生物学家大卫·科尔曼说。今天,科尔曼的研究小组将有关爱尔兰人样品的情况报道在《抗菌剂与化学治疗》杂志上。
 The new superbug probably isn't leading to missed infections, at least in the United Kingdom, because hospitals that suspect a patient is infected with an MRSA nearly always use the antibiotic growth test in addition to PCR, Holmes says. (Patients with a confirmed infection then receive antibiotics that work on MRSAs.) However, many hospitals in continental Europe are moving toward using only PCR tests; this is a warning that those tests need to be modified to test for the new mecA gene, Holmes says.  霍姆斯说,很可能这种新型超级病菌不会造成感染病例的漏检,至少在英国不会,因为除了利用PCR技术检测之外,医院对疑似感染MRSA的病人还利用了抗生素环境生长检测法。病人被确诊为感染MRSA之后,再利用抗MRSA的抗生素进行治疗。霍姆斯说:然而,欧洲大陆的许多医院正在转向只利用PCR技术进行检测,该研究为这些医院敲响了警钟,检测这种新型mecA基因的方法需要改变了。
The study also points to dairy cows as a possible reservoir for the bug, just as pigs seem to pass MRSA to humans in the Netherlands. The bug probably doesn't get to humans through the milk supply, because almost all milk in the United Kingdom and Denmark is pasteurized, a process that kills bacteria. But workers who come into contact with infected dairy cows could be carriers. Holmes's team reports "circumstantial evidence" for this, such as the fact that genetic subtypes of the human and cow samples from the same geographical areas were nearly identical. "The main worry would be that these cows represent a pool of the bacteria" that farm workers spread into the human population, Holmes says.   研究还表明,奶牛可能是这种病菌的储藏库,奶牛可以把这种病菌传给人类,就像在荷兰发生的情况——猪可以把MRSA传给人类。这种病菌很可能不会通过牛奶的供应传给人类,因为英国和丹麦几乎所有的牛奶都经过了巴氏灭菌,这个过程可以杀死病菌。但是跟染病奶牛接触的工人可能会成为带菌者。研究小组报道说,对此他们拥有间接证据,例如:相同地理区域的人类基因亚型和奶牛基因亚型几乎是一模一样的。“主要担心的事情是:奶牛相当于病菌库,而农场工人会将病菌传给特定的人群,”霍姆斯说。
 The big mystery, says Patrick Schlievert of the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, is where the unusual mecA gene came from. One possibility is that it originated long ago in a patient treated with multiple antibiotics and later somehow got into cows. "This should trigger an awful lot of research to figure out what is going on here," he says.  明尼苏达大学双城分校的帕特里克·施利沃特表示,最大的谜团是不知道这种不同寻常的mecA基因来自何处。一种可能性是,它起源于很久以前一个使用多种抗生素治疗的病人,后来通过某种途径进入奶牛体内。“这应该能够引发大量的研究,以便搞清这个领域内正在发生的事情,”施利沃特说。

   

译自:美国《科学》杂志网站(2 June 2011, 6:30 PM

原著:Jocelyn Kaiser

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