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博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》、《科技日报》、《健康时报》、《健康报》、《英语世界》、《英语知识》、《科技英语学习》、《科学之友》、《科学与文化》、《世界科学》、《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

从猴子传播到实验室工作人员身上的新型病毒(图)  

2011-07-21 08:32:21|  分类: 医疗保健 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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从猴子传播到实验室工作人员身上的新型病毒(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

The new virus caused severe, often fatal pneumonia in 23 titi monkeys.新型病毒致使23只伶猴患上了严重的、常常也是致命的肺炎。 

New Virus Jumps From Monkeys to Lab Worker

by Michael Price    胡德良

 It started with a single monkey coming down with pneumonia at the California National Primate Research Center in Davis. Within weeks, 19 monkeys were dead and three humans were sick. Now, a new report confirms that the Davis outbreak was the first known case of an adenovirus jumping from monkeys to humans. The upside: the virus may one day be harnessed as a tool for gene therapy.  起初,戴维斯市加州国家灵长目动物研究中心的一只猴子患上了肺炎。几周之内,19只猴子死亡,三个人染病。目前,一项新研究证实,戴维斯的疾病爆发是所了解到的首例由猴子传染给人类的腺病毒案例。然而,有利的一面是:有朝一日该病毒可以被用来作为基因治疗的工具。
 Adenoviruses are relatively large DNA viruses—as opposed to many other viruses that replicate using RNA—that commonly cause colds and respiratory infections in humans. They're also responsible for a variety of illnesses in cattle, dogs, horses, pigs, and other animals, but scientists thought the viruses and their ailments couldn't jump between species.  腺病毒是较大的DNA病毒,是跟许多其他利用RNA复制的病毒相对而言的,通常可以引起人类感冒和呼吸道感染。腺病毒也可以引起牛、狗、马、猪和其他动物患上各种各样的疾病,但是科学家们原以为这些病毒以及它们引起的疾病不会在物种之间互相传染。
 Then, on 14 May 2009, a healthy adult male titi monkey—a small, reddish-brown species that calls much of South America home—came down with a cough at the Davis primate center and soon became lethargic and wouldn't eat. Staff members gave the animal intravenous fluids and antibiotics, but its condition worsened, and after 5 days staff members euthanized him. Four weeks later, another titi monkey came down with the same symptoms. Then another. And another. Within 2 months, 23 of the 65-strong population had become sick, and 19 eventually died. A team led by infectious diseases researcher Charles Chiu of the University of California, San Francisco, analyzed lung tissue samples from the dead monkeys and identified a never-before-seen adenovirus, which they named titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV).  当时是在2009514日,戴维斯灵长目动物研究中心一只健康的雄性成年伶猴突然患上咳嗽,很快变得萎靡不振,而且不肯进食。伶猴是生活在南美大部分地区的红棕色小体型猴类。工作人员为这只猴子实施静脉注射液体和抗生素,但是病情日益恶化,5天后对其实施了安乐死。四周之后,另外一只伶猴出现了同一种症状。后来又有一只伶猴患病,然后一只接一只地患病,两个月之内,65只健壮的猴子中23只患病,最终有19只猴子死亡。加州大学旧金山分校的传染病研究人员查尔斯·邱领导着一个研究小组,分析了死亡伶猴的肺组织采样,发现了一种以往从未见过的腺病毒,他们称之为伶猴腺病毒(TMAdV)。
 But where did the virus come from? It's unlikely it originated in the titi monkeys themselves, Chiu says: "Hosts that are that susceptible to a disease are not likely to be its originators." So the researchers asked whether any lab workers had been sick during that period. One person, who had had close daily contact with the monkeys, reported coming down with a fever, chills, a headache, a dry cough, and a burning sensation in her lungs—hallmarks of the kinds of respiratory infection commonly caused by adenoviruses. Two of her family members reported similar, though less severe, symptoms in subsequent weeks.  然而,这种病毒是从哪里来的呢?邱说:该病毒不可能起源于伶猴本身,“容易感染某种疾病的宿主,其本身不可能是该病的病源。”因此研究人员询问,在那个时期是否有实验室工作人员生病。一个每天都跟猴子有亲密接触的人报告,当时曾经患有发烧、发冷、头痛、干咳以及肺部有灼烧感,这些通常都是由腺病毒引起的呼吸系统感染的症状。据报告,在接下来的几周中,她的两个家人有过同样的症状,但没有那么剧烈。
 Neither the lab worker nor her family members sought medical attention, and all recovered within 4 weeks, after which it was too late for researchers to swab for traces of the adenoviruses directly. Instead, they examined the patients' blood for antibodies and compared them with those found in the infected monkeys. The lab worker and one of her family members showed a match, suggesting that the monkeys gave the virus to the lab worker or vice versa. But when the team tested a representative set of 81 blood samples from donors in the western United States, none had antibodies. That suggests humans weren't the source of the outbreak either.  那个实验室工作人员及其家人均没有就医,而且几个人都在四周之内就康复了。此后对于研究人员来说太晚了,已经无法利用拭子直接检测这种腺病毒的存在。因此,研究人员转而检测了病人血液中的抗体,并把这些抗体跟在染病的猴子身上所发现的抗体进行了比较。实验室工作人员及其一个家人的抗体跟猴子身上的抗体是匹配的,这说明要么是猴子把病毒传染给实验室工作人员,要么是工作人员将病毒传染给猴子。但是,当研究小组检测美国西部捐赠者提供的一组具有代表性的81份血液采样时,任何一份都没有抗体。这表明人类也不是这种疾病的爆发源。
 After testing the other monkeys at the primate center, which houses hundreds of enclosures, the researchers found one healthy rhesus macaque with TMAdV antibodies. That suggests the disease might have arisen in the macaques and somehow passed to lab workers or the titi monkeys via shared medical equipment or some other contact between the two species, the researchers report today in PLoS Pathogens.  灵长目动物中心拥有几百块圈占地,检测了这里的其他猴子之后,研究人员发现一只健康的猕猴携带TMAdV抗体。今天,研究人员在《公共科学图书馆-病原学》杂志上报道说:检测表明这种病可能起源于猕猴,通过两者共用的医疗器械或某种其他形式的接触,不知不觉地传染给实验室工作人员或伶猴。
 Although the virus didn't prove deadly, or even all that serious, to the humans it infected, the new findings suggest there may be more pathogens than previously thought with species-jumping potential. "Now we need to broaden our focus in looking at monkeys' and other animals' adenoviruses," Chiu says. "We've only touched the tip of the iceberg."  尽管事实证明这种病毒对于感染的人类来说并不是致命的,甚至不都是那么严重,但是新发现表明或许有更多的病原体具有在不同物种间相互传染的可能性,这是以前没有想到的。“现在,在观测猴子和其他动物的腺病毒方面,我们需要拓宽视野,”邱说,“我们所接触到的不过是冰山一角。”
 Michael Imperiale, a microbiologist at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, says TMAdV isn't necessarily a public health threat. He likens the virus to avian influenza, which humans can contract from birds but which is so poorly transmissible between people that it hasn't triggered an epidemic. "The question isn't just whether the virus can jump, but also whether it can widely spread," he says. "That hasn't been proven yet."  密歇根大学安娜堡分校的微生物学家迈克尔·伊姆佩里尔说TMAdV不一定是威胁公众健康的病毒。他说这种病毒类似于禽流感:人们可以通过鸟类感染禽流感,但是禽流感在人与人之间的传染性很差,因此并没有成为流行病。“问题不仅仅在于这种病毒是否可以传染,而且还在于它是否会广泛地传染,”他说,“但是,这一点尚未得到证明。”
 More troubling, Imperiale says, is that the primate center's lab workers appear to have ignored or skirted safety protocols. Chiu says that since the incident, the center has beefed up its oversight and emphasis on following protective measures.  伊姆佩里尔说,更让人感到不安的是,那个灵长目动物中心的工作人员好像忽视了安全条例,或者对安全条例避而不遵。邱称,自从发生了疾病爆发事件之后,该中心加强了监管监督,强调了要采取保护措施。
 TMAdV's rarity in humans could make it a potentially powerful tool as a viral vehicle for delivering gene therapy, Chiu adds. Researchers already use custom adenoviruses stitched with beneficial snippets of DNA to treat diseases; for instance, the cancer-fighting virus Gendicine introduces genes that code for the tumor-suppressing protein p53. The problem is that many people have antibodies to these viruses and their immune responses can make such treatments dangerous or even deadly. That problem likely wouldn't occur with an engineered version of TMAdV because nobody has antibodies to it. Chiu has a patent pending for using TMAdV as a gene-therapy vehicle.  邱还说,TMAdV病毒在人类中很罕见,这可能会使它成为强有力的工具,为实施基因治疗充当病毒载体。研究人员已经利用常规腺病毒跟有益的DNA片段结合来治疗疾病了。例如:抗癌病毒“今又生(Gendicine)”引入的基因可以为抑制肿瘤的p53蛋白进行解码;但是问题在于许多人拥有这些病毒的抗体,他们的免疫反应会使这种治疗充满危险,甚至会使人丧命。利用基因工程处理过的新型TMAdV病毒可能不会出现上述问题,因为没有人携带这种病毒的抗体。邱正在为利用TMAdV病毒作为基因治疗的载体而申请专利。

   

译自:美国《科学》杂志网站科学此时频道(14 July 2011, 5:00 PM

原著:Michael Price

月亮飞船经典日志导读

 血液细胞会变形!(图)  造成血压波动的诸多因素(图)
 紫锥菊可以预防感冒(图)  人造心脏的新技术(图)
 吸烟的危害因性别而异(图)  血 液 的 未 来(图)
 你对癌症具有免疫力吗?(图)  抗癌新途径—基因疗法(图)
 疟疾疫苗的效果符合预期(图)  可以嗅出疾病的电子鼻(图)
 青霉素的发现与抗生素的发展(图)  发现癌细胞的特性(图)

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