注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

用博客作平台传播科学新闻 以翻译为途径普及科学知识

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》、《科技日报》、《健康时报》、《健康报》、《英语世界》、《英语知识》、《科技英语学习》、《科学之友》、《科学与文化》、《世界科学》、《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

网易考拉推荐

废水+细菌=清洁能源(图)  

2011-09-28 08:29:03|  分类: 尖端科技 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 

废水+细菌=清洁能源(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

Using a prototype system that uses only fresh water (bottle, left), salt water (right), and a chamber where certain types of energy-generating bacteria feed on nutrients (foreground), scientists have produced hydrogen gas (collected in chamber at arrow) without using any external sources of energy.一个原型系统仅仅包括淡水(左瓶)、盐水(右瓶)和一个细菌营养摄取室(前面),无需任何外部能源,科学家们利用某些种类的能量产出细菌得到了氢气。箭头所指的容器是用来收集氢气的。 

Waste Water + Bacteria = Clean Energy

by Sid Perkins    胡德良

 For the first time, researchers have sustainably produced hydrogen gas, a potential source of clean energy, using only water and bacteria. The challenge now, scientists say, is to scale up the process to provide large amounts of hydrogen for various purposes, such as fueling vehicles or small generators.  研究人员仅仅利用水和细菌首次以可持续的方式生产出潜在的清洁能源——氢。科学家们说,目前面临的挑战是改进工序,生产大量的氢,以满足各种不同的用途,如:为车辆和小型发电机提供燃料。
 Hydrogen may be the ultimate clean fuel because burning it—in chemical terms, reacting it with oxygen—yields only water vapor. Previously, researchers have produced hydrogen gas in microbial-powered, batterylike fuel cells, but only when they supplemented the energy produced by the bacteria with electrical energy from external sources—such as that obtained from renewable sources or burning fossil fuels, says Bruce Logan, an environmental engineer at Pennsylvania State University, University Park. Also, by using devices that contain large stretches of permeable membranes that separate salt water from fresh, scientists have tapped the voltage difference that exists between them. But those devices create only a voltage difference; they don't generate the electrical current required to produce hydrogen, Logan notes. Hydrogen atoms are formed in such devices only when electrons flow into a fluid where they can combine with hydrogen ions; those atoms in turn combine with each other to create hydrogen gas.  氢可能是最终的清洁能源,因为用化学的术语来讲,氢跟氧发生反应生成的只是水蒸气。宾夕法尼亚州立大学帕克分校的环境工程师布鲁斯·洛根说:以前,研究人员曾经利用由细菌提供能源的燃料电池组生产出氢气,但是只有补充可再生能源或化石燃料等外部能源提供的电能之后,产生能量的细菌才会释放氢气。此外,研究人员利用包含大片的可渗透隔膜将容器中的盐水和淡水隔离,获得了存在于两种水之间的电压差。洛根指出,但是那些设备只能制造出电压差,不能产生制造氢气所需的电流。只有当电流源源不断的进入液体中跟氢离子结合后,才能形成氢原子,这些氢原子结合在一起产生氢气。
 Now, Logan and Penn State environmental engineer Younggy Kim report online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that they've done something no other team has: They've successfully combined the two types of devices to generate hydrogen without any external sources of energy whatsoever. The prototype device contains two small chambers—one holding the bacteria and their nutrients, the other holding salty water where the hydrogen was produced—that are separated by five stacked cells through which the researchers circulated fresh water and salt water. Together, these stacked cells generated between 0.5 and 0.6 volts—enough, the researchers say, to enable hydrogen production in the microbial fuel cell, in which bacteria feed on acetate compounds.  现在,洛根和宾夕法尼亚州的环境工程师扬基·金在本周的《美国国家科学院院刊》在线版上报道说,他们完成了其他研究小组没有完成的任务:他们把两种设备结合在一起,在不需要任何外部能源的情况下成功地制造出氢气。这个原型设备包括两个小容器:一个容器盛有细菌以及细菌所需要的营养,另一个容器盛有盐水,氢气从这里的盐水中产生出来,两个容器被五块叠放的电池隔开,研究人员通过这些电池使淡水和盐水进行循环。研究人员说,这些叠放的电池共同产生的电压在0.50.6伏特之间,但足以使细菌燃料电池中产生氢气,而细菌在燃料电池中靠乙酸化合物获得能量。
 For each 30 milliliters of sodium acetate solution provided for the bacteria, the device generated between 21 and 26 milliliters of hydrogen gas over the course of a day. Admittedly, this is a small volume, about four times the amount of fuel in a disposable lighter, but it's enough to prove that the hydrogen-generating concept works in the lab, the researchers contend. Although the equipment needed to produce the hydrogen is expensive, the device needs no external source of energy—and therefore no greenhouse gases are generated during the process.  在一天当中,每为这些细菌提供30毫升的乙酸钠溶液,该设备就可以生产2126毫升的氢气。研究人员声称:不可否认,这个量很小,大约四倍于一次性打火机中的燃料,但是足可以证明这种生产氢气的想法在实验室能够行得通。尽管这样生产氢气所组要的设备很昂贵,但是该设备无需外部能源,因而在生产过程中不会产生温室气体。
 The team's device "is elegantly simple, and their test results are well-explained and unambiguous," says Leonard Tender, a chemist at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. One of the challenges to scaling up the process, he notes, will be developing new materials for fuel cell membranes that won't quickly become clogged with the chemical byproducts of bacterial activity, which would cut down on the flow of ions that help maintain the voltage difference across the membranes. Once such hurdles are crossed, however, the process offers the intriguing possibility of using the organic matter in wastewater to generate energy, he notes.  华盛顿哥伦比亚特区海军研究实验室的化学家伦纳德·坦德说:“研究小组的设备雅致而简易,他们对试验结果解释得很充分,毫不含糊。”他指出:改进工序所面临的一个挑战将会是,为燃料电池开发新型隔膜材料,使其不至于很快地被细菌活动产生的化学副产物所堵塞。隔膜被堵塞之后,有助于保持隔膜两边电压差的离子流量就会减少。然而,他还指出:一旦跨过这样的障碍,该方法就能提供引人注目的机会——利用废水中的有机物质生产能源。
 But César Torres, a chemical engineer at Arizona State University, Tempe, suggests that the new technology isn't quite ready for full-scale production of hydrogen. "This is a simple process, but the chemistry and the components are complicated," he says. "The technology needed to design and manufacture materials needed to produce efficient, nonclogging membranes is quickly evolving, but there's still a lot of research to be done."  亚利桑那州立大学坦佩分校的化学工程师凯萨·托里斯提出,这项新技术还没有为全面生产氢气做好充分的准备。“工序虽简单,但其中的化学原理和组分却很复杂,”他说,“在设计和制造高效而不堵塞的隔膜材料方面,尽管所需的技术正在快速发展,但仍然有很多需要研究的东西。”
 Another challenge to scaling up will be "keeping the bacteria happy," he notes. The key, he suggests, will be extracting much but not all the energy produced by the bacteria. Trying to use all of the energy produced by bacterial metabolism wouldn't leave enough for the microbes to grow, reproduce, and thrive.  托里斯指出,在改进工序上面临的另一个挑战将是“要让细菌保持高兴”。他提出,关键是要提取细菌所产生的大部分能量,而不是提取全部能量。如果企图利用细菌代谢所产生的全部能量,那么所剩能量就不足以使细菌发育、繁殖并茁壮成长。

   

译自:美国《科学》杂志网站(20 September 2011, 2:44 PM

原著:Sid Perkins

  干露露默哀后脱衣,表达对谁的尊重?(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

抓虾    google reader    鲜果   有道    QQ邮箱

月亮飞船经典日志导读

蓝天白云美人体(组图)

白衣美腿少女的诱惑(组图)

超刺激的经典游戏--潜入刺杀

好玩的人体拼图游戏(游戏)

利用超百万处理器进行计算(图)

尾巴导航,安全着陆(图)

美国为防生化武器所做的努力(图)

最具威力的粒子加速器(图)

香味弥漫的夜总会(图)

看不见的保护层——气凝胶(组图)

又出现了一个硅谷?(组图)

超音速变形轰炸机(组图)

 百科大全

新朋友置入博客的方法点击美女赏析模块代码复制 - gzbopai - GZ博派什么是代码及代码怎么用?









海底世界博古通今奇方妙药民间土方在线读报视觉大餐博客技巧新修藏经生活宝典生命科学宇宙探秘地球环境新书上架在线工具博客游戏实用网址日记边框电脑技巧美女赏析代码使用
家常好菜星座物语购物中心天气在线银行汇集旅游天空租房买房美食天下汽车之家健康成长宠物贴吧时尚女性少儿频道职业搜索手机之家各地大学音乐搜吧游戏基地视频直播电影资讯
新闻联播小说聚集军事基地图片素材非常动漫体育赛事交友天地明星聚集社区论坛笑话大全软件工具空间博客设计学院硬件精灵桌面壁纸摄影部落实用百科曲艺小品篮球播吧法律顾问

民间实用验方(皮肤科)2009年11月4日 - 杨东 - 杨东小园

  评论这张
 
相关小组: 生物探秘环保在身边
阅读(29008)| 评论(6)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017