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博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》、《科技日报》、《健康时报》、《健康报》、《英语世界》、《英语知识》、《科技英语学习》、《科学之友》、《科学与文化》、《世界科学》、《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

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对抗菌素耐药性需要采取更多行动(图)  

2014-11-21 10:15:27|  分类: 医疗保健 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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对抗菌素耐药性需要采取更多行动(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

 伦敦医学研究委员会大楼

More action needed on antibiotic resistance

胡德良   译

 Pharma and governments need to put their heads together urgently in order to tackle the threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), warn manufacturers and researchers. 

 制药商和研究人员警告说:制药公司和政府急需群策群力,共同处理抗菌素耐药性(AMR)问题。

 AMR – which encompasses resistance to antibiotics and other drugs to treat infections caused by microbes such as parasites, viruses and fungi – has been grabbing headlines this year. 

 今年,AMR一直是各大报刊上的头条新闻。AMR包括对抗生素和治疗感染的其他药物所产生的抗性,那些感染通常是由寄生虫、病毒和真菌引起的。

 The World Health Organization (WHO) has gone so far as to warn that common infections will become “a major threat to public health” causing deaths on a massive scale

 世界卫生组织(WHO)甚至警告说:普通感染将成为公众健康的主要威胁,会造成大量的死亡事件。

 “Government-funded research and pharma need to work better together to ensure that the fundamental science research base can help to feed into the pipeline,” Des Walsh, head of infections and immunity at the Medical Research Council (MRC), tells Pharmafocus. 

 “政府资助的研究项目和制药公司需要协同努力,确保有助于基础科研资源转向这一领域,”医学研究委员会(MRC)感染与免疫部主任德斯·沃尔什告诉《药业聚焦》杂志的记者说。

 “We need to try and engage more with pharma at a science level: we need to pick their brains more to find out why things didn’t work or what needs to be tweaked,” he adds.

 沃尔什还说:“我们需要努力,在科学的层面上跟制药公司结合起来,我们需要从制药公司那里获取更多信息,以发现为什么药物不起作用,或者要搞清需要做些什么样的调整。”

 The MRC recently announced it is to lead an initiative backed by eight government bodies and the Wellcome Trust, co-ordinating the work of medical researchers and biologists as well as apparently less likely resources such as engineers, vets, economists, social scientists and mathematicians. 

 医学委员会最近宣布,该委员会将要带头发起一项由八个政府机构和惠康基金会支持的行动,协调医学研究人员和生物学家的工作,而且也统筹安排显然不太相关的人力资源进行协调工作,如:在工程师、兽医、经济学家、社会科学家和数学家等人员之间进行协作。

 This is because the problem of AMR extends far beyond human health with livestock increasingly being infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. 

 原因是,随着家畜越来越多地感染耐药菌,AMR的问题远远超出了人类健康的范畴。

 “The UK is traditionally very strong in global health research and there’s a huge breadth of issues: animals, the environment, waterways, agriculture,” Walsh continues. “Very poor countries are fighting this on the front line. The UK is not being affected as much as some but we should not be complacent. Bugs know no borders: they can get on a plane.”

 “从传统上来讲,英国在全球健康研究方面做得很强大,研究涉及的问题范围也非常宽泛,包括:动物、环境、水路、农业等,”沃尔什接着说,“非常贫穷的国家正在处于跟这些问题作斗争的前线上。英国不像某些国家感染得那么严重,但是我们不能自满。细菌是不分国界的,它们能够搭乘飞机旅行。”

 UK prime minister David Cameron, concerned about medicine once again entering the ‘dark ages’, has announced a review into why so few anti-microbial drugs have been introduced in recent years – but a parliamentary report warned this did not show sufficient urgency.

 英国首相戴维·卡梅伦对于医学再次进入“黑暗时代”表示关注,他公布了一项审查报告,说明了近年来采用的抗菌药为何如此之少。但是议会的一项报告警告说:审查报告中没有显示出足够的紧迫性。

 And the Science and Technology Committee agrees that collaboration between different areas of research is paramount in tackling AMR.

 科学技术委员会一致认为:在解决AMR的问题上,不同研究领域之间的合作是至关重要的。

 But antibiotic research has been falling out of favour with drug companies as they focus research upon more lucrative fields. Walsh suggests the emphasis in pharma a decade or more ago was on viral infection, rather than microbial diseases. 

 但是,制药公司一直对于抗生素研究不感兴趣,他们的研究集中于更加有利可图的领域。沃尔什提出:十年或十多年前,制药公司注重对病毒感染的研究,而不注重研究跟细菌感染有关的疾病。

 “There was a real drive towards HIV and flu, for example, and great strides were made,” Walsh points out. “Maybe the eye was taken off the ball because there were pressing needs, and we had antimicrobials that worked.” 

 “例如,制药公司拥有真正的动力去研究艾滋病毒和流感病毒,而且也获得了巨大的进步,”沃尔什指出,“或许当时的注意力不在抗菌剂上,因为迫切需要治疗病毒感染,而且那时候我们的抗菌剂还是有效的。”

 But he believes all is far from lost because pharma still has access to the work it was doing more widely in antimicrobials. Getting research and pharma closer together would “give pharma sight of some of the funky science that’s coming through universities”, he adds. 

 但是沃尔什相信,这一切并没有失去,因为制药公司仍然可以利用之前的工作开展更加广泛的抗菌剂研究。他说:让科研和制药公司更加紧密地结合在一起,“将会使制药公司了解到大学中所进行的一些符合时宜的研究。”

 Pharma’s role

 制药公司的作用

 GlaxoSmithKline is one of only a handful of companies that still has an active antibiotics pipeline but believes new approaches are needed if more companies are to be encouraged to invest in this area. 

 抗生素生产仍然活跃的公司为数不多了,葛兰素史克公司就是其中之一。但该公司认为,要想鼓励更多的公司投资于这一领域,就需要开辟新途径。

 “This needs to include new economic models and more open-minded approaches to sharing information and working with partners across the public and private sectors,” a GSK spokesperson tells Pharmafocus.

 “这些途径包括:共享信息、广泛地跟公共部门和私营部门进行合作的新型经济模式和更加开放的合作渠道,”葛兰素史克公司发言人告诉《药业聚焦》杂志的记者说。

 There is certainly a limited amount that pharma can be expected to do on its own, Walsh believes. “There is a window of opportunity we need to grab hold of but we need a co-ordinated approach,” he says. “In the UK, for example, we have an excellent research infrastructure: there is lots of work being done but it is not pulled together.”

 沃尔什认为:可以预料,制药公司本身所做的工作肯定是有限的。“有机会,我们就需要抓住,然而我们需要一种协作的方式,”沃尔什说,“例如:在英国,我们的科研基础设施非常到位,做了许多研究工作,但就是没有齐心协力地去搞研究。”

 AstraZeneca has one of the most promising pipelines featuring antibiotics, but said in May it was considering leaving the field to focus more on areas such as cancer and heart disease. 

 阿斯利康公司具备最有前途的、以抗生素为特色的生产线,但是该公司于五月份宣称,公司有意丢下抗生素的生产,更加专注于癌症和心脏病药物的制造。

 “It is essential that government and industry work together to find a solution,” an AstraZeneca spokesperson says. “There are currently considerable barriers to investment in the development of new antibiotics.” 

 “政府和药企联起手来寻找解决办法是很有必要的,”阿斯利康公司发言人说,“目前在投资开发新型抗生素方面有着巨大的阻力。”

 In particular, this means “the commercial environment for new antibiotics needs to better reflect the value of these life-saving treatments by balancing prudent use in order to minimise AMR, together with the availability of new drugs to fight existing and future pathogens”.

 特别是,这意味着“新型抗生素的商业环境需要更好地体现出这些救命药物的价值,为了使AMR降至最低,一方面要审慎使用抗生素,另一方面也要拥有抗击现有病原体及未来病原体的新药。”

 A renewed focus on generating knowledge and technologies from which new types of antimicrobials and diagnostics could be invented – along with greater incentives for industry to develop novel antibiotics – are AstraZeneca’s suggestions. 

 阿斯利康公司的建议是:重新专注于获取知识和开发技术,以此来发明新型抗菌剂和新型诊断法,进一步激励药企研发新型抗生素。

 “Any initiative that seeks to overcome the scientific, regulatory and financial barriers to antibiotic development – such as the UK government’s commissioning an independent review to explore the economic issues surrounding AMR – is a positive step forward,” AZ concludes.

 阿斯利康公司总结说:“在抗生素开发方面,任何在科学上、监管上和财务上努力克服障碍的行动都等于是向前迈出了积极的一步。例如:为了探索AMR所面临的经济问题,英国政府委托实施的独立审查就是一种积极的推动。”

译自:http://www.pharmafile.com/25/07/14 at 09:58am

原著:Adam Hill   

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