注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

用博客作平台传播科学新闻 以翻译为途径普及科学知识

 
 
 

日志

 
 
关于我

博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》、《科技日报》、《健康时报》、《健康报》、《英语世界》、《英语知识》、《科技英语学习》、《科学之友》、《科学与文化》、《世界科学》、《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

网易考拉推荐

开放式创新2.0的十二条原则(图)   

2016-11-06 10:18:55|  分类: 尖端科技 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

开放式创新2.0的十二条原则(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

 Driverless buses are being tested by an innovation consortium in Kista, Sweden.

瑞典的希斯塔,无人驾驶公交车正在接受创新联盟的测试。

Evolve governance structures, practices and metrics to accelerate innovation in an era of digital connectivity, writes Martin Curley.

马丁·柯利写道:改善管理结构,加强管理规范,提高管理标准,以加快数字连接时代的创新步伐。

Twelve principles for open innovation 2.0

开放式创新2.0的十二条原则

胡德良   译

 A new mode of innovation is emerging that blurs the lines between universities, industry, governments and communities. It exploits disruptive technologies — such as cloud computing, the Internet of Things and big data — to solve societal challenges sustainably and profitably, and more quickly and ably than before. It is called open innovation 2.0.

 创新的新模式正在出现,使大学、产业、政府和社区之间的界限变得模糊不清。这种创新模式利用颠覆性技术,如云计算、物联网和大数据,来迎接社会挑战,具有可持续性,而且有利可图,创新速度比以前更快,创新能力比以前更强。这就是所谓的开放式创新2.0

 The promise is sustainable, intelligent living: innovations drive economic growth and improve quality of life while reducing environmental impact and resource use. For example, a dynamic congestion-charging system can adjust traffic flow and offer incentives to use park-and-ride schemes, guided by real-time traffic levels and air quality. Car-to-car communication could manage traffic to minimize transit times and emissions and eliminate road deaths from collisions. Smart electricity grids lower costs, integrate renewable energies and balance loads. Health-care monitoring enables early interventions, improving life quality and reducing care costs.

 这种创新模式的前景就是开创可持续的、智能化的生活:创新推动经济增长,提高生活质量,同时还能够降低对环境的影响,减少对资源的利用。例如:在实时交通流量水平和空气质量指标的引导下,一个拥塞的动态收费系统可以调节流量,并且为使用停车换乘方案的司机提供奖励。车对车通信能够进行交通管理,花费最少的运输时间,产生最少的排量,消除碰撞造成的道路死亡事件。智能电网可以降低成本,整合可再生能源,平衡负载。保健监控能够实施早期干预,提高生活质量,降低医疗费用。

 Such innovations are being tested in 'living labs' in hundreds of cities. In Dublin, for example, the city council has partnered with my company, the technology firm Intel (of which I am a vice-president), to install a pilot network of sensors to improve flood management by measuring local rain fall and river levels, and detecting blocked drains. Eindhoven in the Netherlands is working with electronics firm Philips and others to develop intelligent street lighting. Communications-technology firm Ericsson, the KTH Royal Institute of Technology, IBM and others are collaborating to test self-driving buses in Kista, Sweden.

 在数百个城市,这种创新正在“生活实验室”里进行测试。例如:在都柏林,市议会已经与我所在的技术公司——英特尔公司进行合作,安装调试传感器网络,通过测量当地的降雨量和河流水位,以及检测淤塞的渠道,来加强防洪管理。荷兰的埃因霍温市正在与飞利浦电子公司以及其他公司进行合作,开发智能路灯照明系统。通信技术公司爱立信、KTH皇家理工学院、IBM公司和其他部门进行合作,正在瑞典的希斯塔测试自驾驶公交车。

 Yet many institutions and companies remain unaware of this radical shift. They often confuse invention and innovation. Invention is the creation of a technology or method. Innovation concerns the use of that technology or method to create value. The agile approaches needed for open innovation 2.0 conflict with the 'command and control' organizations of the industrial age (see ‘How innovation modes have evolved’). Institutional or societal cultures can inhibit user and citizen involvement. Intellectual-property (IP) models may inhibit collaboration. Government funders can stifle the emergence of ideas by requiring that detailed descriptions of proposed work are specified before research can begin. Measures of success, such as citations, discount innovation and impact. Policymaking lags behind the market place.

 然而,许多机构和企业仍然没有意识到这种根本转变,经常将发明和创新混淆起来。发明是一种技术或方法的创建;创新涉及使用该技术或方法来创造价值。开放式创新2.0所需要的灵活方法,与工业时代“指挥和控制”的组织结构相冲突。传统文化或社会文化可能会妨碍用户和市民的参与,知识产权(IP)类型可能会限制协作。政府资助单位在研究开始之前就要求对于拟建的工程进行具体详尽的描述,这样可能会扼杀新观念的诞生。荣誉证书之类的成功评判标准会使创新及其影响大打折扣,政策的制定落后于市场表现。

 How innovation modes have evolved

 创新模式的演变

Closed innovation封闭式创新

 

Open innovation开放式创新

Open innovation 2.0

开放式创新 2.0

Dependency依赖性

Independency独立

Interdependency相互依赖

 

Subcontracting分包

 

Cross-licensing互相许可

Cross-fertilization互惠互利

Solo单边

Bilateral双边

Ecosystem生态系统

Linear线性

Linear, leaking线性,渗透

Nonlinear mash-up非线性混搭

Linear subcontracts线性分包商

Bilateral双边

Triple or quadruple helix三重或四重螺旋式

Planning规划

Validation, pilots验证,试用

Experimentation实验

Control控制

Management管理

Orchestration协调

Win–lose game非输即赢

Win–win game双赢

Win more–win more多赢

Box thinking闭箱式思维

Out of the box创造性思维

No boxes!发散型思维

Single entity单一实体

Single discipline单一学科

Interdisciplinary跨学科

Value chain价值链

Value network价值网络

Value constellation价值星座

 The challenge is how to execute and govern the new mode. Innovation is a risky business that has high failure rates — 96% of all innovations do not return their capital cost, and 66% of new products fail within two years. But the potential benefits are vast. Innovation policies should recognize that the linear research-and-development model will be outpaced by a nonlinear, open and collaborative innovation process where the mantra is 'fail fast, scale fast'.

 我们面临的挑战是,如何执行和管理这种新模式。创新是一项有风险的任务,具有高失败率的特点——在所有的创新活动中,96%赚不回本金;66%的新产品两年内显现出缺点。但是,潜在的益处是巨大的。制定创新政策时应该认识到,线性的研究和开发模式将会被超越,非线性、开放和协作式的创新过程将会取而代之,针对这一过程中的一句口头禅是:“失败容易升级快”。

 Awareness of open innovation 2.0 needs to be raised across industry and society. Here I outline the concept and how it works, and offer a set of 'design patterns' — general solutions to common problems. Adopting these can accelerate the move from conceptual to concrete. The European Union's Open Innovation Strategy and Policy Group, of which I am a chair, is a global leader in distilling its knowledge in this way. The goal is that open innovation 2.0 will become a discipline practised by many rather than an art mastered by few.

 整个行业和社会都需要提高对开放式创新2.0的认识。下面,我要概述这个观念,说明它是如何运行的,并提供一??组“设计模式”,作为对共同问题的整体解决方案。采用这些模式可以加速从概念到具体的行动。在以这种方式提取知识精华方面,欧盟开放式创新战略与政策集团占据全球领先的地位,而我目前担任着该集团的主席。我们的目标是,使开放式创新2.0成为许多人亲身参与的一个学科,而不是由少数人掌握的一门艺术。

 Diversity counts

 多样性具有价值

 Technical innovation is no longer solely the domain of lone scientists in labs. Scientists in the mid-twentieth century at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey, are credited with inventing the transistor, the laser and the Unix computer operating system. Today, a more than one-third of the product launches by consumer-goods firm Procter & Gamble — including the fabric softener Bounce — emanate from ideas that started outside the company.

 技术创新不再仅仅是实验室科学家单独研究的领域。二十世纪中叶,在新泽西州默里山的贝尔实验室里,科学家们发明了晶体管、激光器和UNIX计算机操作系统。当今,消费品公司——保洁公司所推出的三分之一以上的产品,包括织物柔软剂Bounce在内,都源自公司外部的理念。

 The term open innovation — where ideas pass between different organizations to create value — was coined by organizational theorist Henry Chesbrough2 in 2003. Today, the concept is evolving fast. Driven by plummeting communication costs and the ever increasing numbers of connected people and devices, it has never been so easy to exchange information and ideas.

 开放式创新这个术语是由组织理论家亨利·切斯布罗2003年提出来的,在这种创新模式下,理念在不同的企业之间传递,以创造价值。当今,这种理念传播得很快:沟通成本直线下降,联网的人与设备在数量上不断增加,因此信息交流和观点交流变得非常便捷,这一点是前所未有的。

开放式创新2.0的十二条原则(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

 Intelligent-lighting sensors can collect useful data about urban activities for city planners.

 智能照明传感器可以为城市规划人员收集有关城市活动的有用数据。 

 For example, InnoCentive, founded by US drug company Eli Lilly, is a website that matches problems posted by companies with scientists who can potentially solve them. So far, more than 59,000 solutions have been proposed in response to about 2,000 challenges with US$48 million paid to solvers. The GreenTouch consortium, led by telecommunications company Alcatel-Lucent, set a goal of community-sourcing ways to improve the energy efficiency of communication networks by a factor of 1,000 by 2020. It delivered a road map for a factor of 10,000. And the Innovation Value Institute at Maynooth University in Ireland worked internationally and with competing companies to develop a framework for measuring and improving IT capability, which is now used by hundreds of organizations worldwide.

 例如,美国制药商礼来公司创建的意诺新公司,是一家网站,发布着各公司提出的问题,该网站将这些问题与可能解决这些问题的科学家匹配起来。到目前为止,对于大约2,000个富有挑战性的问题,已经提出了59,000多条解决方案,为解决问题的人士支付了4,800万美元。阿尔卡特-朗讯电信公司领导下的绿色沟通企业联盟设立了一个目标:到2020年,通过社区外包的方式要将通信网络的能源效率提高1,000倍。在该联盟提供的发展蓝图中,要将能源效率提高10,000倍。爱尔兰梅努斯大学创新价值研究所与相互竞争的公司展开国际合作,开发一种用于测量和提高IT能力的框架,目前该框架在全球范围内有数百个企业正在使用。

 Companies are opening up their research labs. Philips has converted its research facility in Eindhoven, which had 2,400 employees in 2001, to an open research campus (High Tech Campus Eindhoven) that now houses more than 140 firms and around 10,000 researchers. Breakthrough ideas often emerge at the intersection of disciplines. For example, Keenan, an Irish agricultural-equipment supplier, and telephone company Vodafone have worked with Intel to develop an online service that uses real-time information to provide farmers with nutritional advice for livestock.

 各公司正在开办自己的研究实验室。2001年,飞利浦公司在埃因霍温的研究机构有2,400名员工,该机构目前已经转型,成为一个开放的研究园区(埃因霍温高科技园区),现在园区内拥有140多个企业和大约10,000名研究人员。突破性的创意常常出现在学科的交叉点上。例如,爱尔兰的农业设备供应商基南公司和沃达丰电话公司已经与英特尔公司合作,开发一种在线服务,利用实时信息为农民提供牲畜营养咨询服务。

 Open innovation 2.0 is neither easy nor is it a panacea. It requires courage and energy. But once a critical mass is achieved, innovation can catalyse itself. Just as momentum is the product of mass and velocity, the ecosystem with the most participants and fastest turnover of ideas will be the most successful. Participating organizations must create synergies rather than cancel each other out. High levels of trust and conviction in the shared vision are predictors for eventual success.

 开放式创新2.0虽说不易,但也并非万全之策。这种创新需要勇气和能力,但是一旦达到足够的量,自然就促成了创新。正如动量是质量与速度的乘积,参与人数最多、思想流通最快的生态系统将是最成功的。参与的组织必须协作,而不是互相将对方排挤出去。共同的愿景、高度的信任、坚定的信念预示着最终能够取得成功。

 A common language helps. Just as architects and engineers can refer to canonical designs when building a bridge, social and technological innovators can improve productivity by following design patterns. These heuristics summarize insights about the innovation process and can be combined (see ‘Keys to collaborative innovation’). They shorten learning times and improve the results and pace of innovation.

 共同的语言能够有所帮助。正如建筑师和工程师修建一座桥梁时可以参考规范设计一样,社会和技??术的创新者也可以按照设计模式来提高生产效率。这些启发总结了对创新过程的认识,可以将它们结合起来。这样做能够缩短学习时间,改善创新成果,加快创新步伐。

 Keys to collaborative innovation

 协同创新的关键原则

 1. Purpose. Efforts and intellects aligned through commitment rather than compliance deliver an impact greater than the sum of their parts. A great example is former US President John F. Kennedy's vision of putting a man on the Moon. Articulating a shared value4 that can be created is important. A win–win scenario is more sustainable than a win–lose outcome.

 1.明确目的。通过承诺而不是通过顺从将努力和智慧结合起来,这样所产生的影响要比各部分影响的总和还要大。一个很好的例子是美国前总统约翰·肯尼迪的愿望——将人类送上月球。阐明可以创造的共同价值是很重要的,双赢的方案比一方输一方赢的结果更具可持续性。

 2. Partner. The 'quadruple helix' of government, industry, academia and citizens joining forces aligns goals, amplifies resources, attenuates risk and accelerates progress. A collaboration between Intel, University College London, Imperial College London and Innovate UK's Future Cities Catapult is working in the Intel Collaborative Research Institute to improve people's well-being in cities, for example to enable reduction of air pollution.

 2.进行合作。政府、产业界、学术界和公众联起手来,这种“四重螺旋式”创新模式能够对准目标、扩大资源、降低风险、加快进度。在英特尔合作研究所,英特尔公司、伦敦大学学院、伦敦帝国学院和英国未来城市创新组织之间展开合作,例如,能够通过合作减少空气污染,以此来提高城市居民的幸福感。

 3. Platform. An environment for collaboration is a basic requirement. Platforms should be integrated and modular, allowing a plug-and-play approach. They must be open to ensure low barriers to use, catalysing the evolution of a community. Challenges in security, standards, trust and privacy need to be addressed. For example, the Open Connectivity Foundation is securing interoperability for the Internet of Things.

 3. 搭建平台。对协作的环境要求是一项基本要求。平台应该采取集成的、含有标准组件的、支持即插即用的方式。平台必须是开放的,确保使用障碍率低,能够促进团体发展。在安全、标准、信任和隐私方面,具有挑战性的问题需要解决。例如,开放互连基金会为物联网的互操作性提供了保证。

 4. Possibilities. Returns may not come from a product but from the business model that enabled it, a better process or a new user experience. Strategic tools are available, such as industrial designer Larry Keeley's breakdown of innovations into ten types in four categories: finance, process, offerings and delivery.

 4. 考虑可能性。回报可能不是来自一款产品,而是来自推出这款产品的商业模式、更加合理的流程或新的用户体验。战略工具是可以利用的,如工业设计师拉里·基利把创新分为十种,属于四大类:财务、流程、产品和配送。

 5. Plan. Adoption and scale should be the focus of innovation efforts, not product creation. Around 20% of value is created when an innovation is established; more than 80% comes when it is widely adopted7. Focus on the 'four Us': utility (value to the user); usability; user experience; and ubiquity (designing in network effects).

 5. 制定计划。采用和规模应该是努力创新的重点,而产品制造不是重点。当一项创新项目被确立下来时,这就创造了大约20%的价值;超过80%的价值是当这项创新被广泛采用时创造的。要注重“四U原则”:实用性(对用户有价值);可用性;用户体验和普遍性(网络效应设计)。

 6. Pyramid. Enable users to drive innovation8. They inspired two-thirds of innovations in semiconductors and printed circuit boards, for example. Lego Ideas encourages children and others to submit product proposals — submitters must get 10,000 supporters for their idea to be reviewed. Successful inventors get 1% of royalties.

 6. 金字塔式创新。让用户带动创新,例如:在半导体和印刷电路板方面的创新,三分之二得到了来自用户的启发。乐高创意公司鼓励孩子们和其他人提交产品建议,提交人的创意必须得到10,000人的支持,才能接受审核,成功的发明者可获得1%的专利使用费。

 7. Problem. Most innovations come from a stated need. Ethnographic research with users, customers or the environment can identify problems and support brainstorming of solutions. Create a road map to ensure the shortest path to a solution.

 7. 发现问题。大多数创新来自一定的需要。结合用户、客户或环境的人种学研究可以发现问题,支持群策群力地拿出解决方案。创建一个发展蓝图,确保利用最便捷的解决途径。

 8. Prototype. Solutions need to be tested and improved through rapid experimentation with users and citizens. Prototyping shows how applicable a solution is, reduces the risks of failures and can reveal pain points. 'Hackathons', where developers come together to rapidly try things, are increasingly common.

 8. 原型法。解决方案需要测试,需要通过用户和公民进行快速试验而得到改善。原型法可以展示一个解决方案的适用性如何,降低发生故障的风险,也可以揭示难点所在。“编程马拉松”现象越来越普遍了,其中搞开发的人员走到一起,迅速进行尝试。

 9. Pilot. Projects need to be implemented in the real world on small scales first. The Intel Collaborative Research Institute runs research projects in London's parks, neighbourhoods and schools. Barcelona's Laboratori — which involves the quadruple helix — is pioneering open 'living lab' methods in the city to boost culture, knowledge, creativity and innovation.

 9. 试验探索。在现实世界中,首先需要小规模地实施项目。英特尔合作研究所管理着伦敦科技园区、临近地区和学校的研究项目。巴塞罗那实验室的研究涉及四重螺旋模式,该实验室正在城市中探索开办开放式“生活实验室”的方法,以提高文化、知识、创造力和创新的水平。

 10. Product. Prototypes need to be converted into viable commercial products or services through scaling up and new infrastructure globally. Cloud computing allows even small start-ups to scale with volume, velocity and resilience.

 10. 商业产品。需要通过按比例扩大和新的基础设施,全面地将原型转换成实用的商业产品或服务。云计算甚至允许初创的小型企业在生产规模、发展速度和恢复能力方面进行有效升级。

 11. Product service systems. Organizations need to move from just delivering products to also delivering related services that improve sustainability as well as profitability. Rolls-Royce sells 'power by the hour' — hours of flight time rather than jet engines — enabled by advanced telemetry. The ultimate goal of open innovation 2.0 is a circular or performance economy, focused on services and reuse rather than consumption and waste.

 11. 产品服务体系。企业需要从仅仅提供产品转移到兼提供相关服务,改善可持续性,提高盈利能力。劳斯莱斯公司销售的是“按小时计算的动力”——卖点为续飞的时数,而不仅仅是喷气式发动机,这一点是通过先进的遥测功能做到的。开放式创新2.0的最终目标是一种循环经济或绩效经济,注重服务和再利用,而不是强调消耗和浪费。

 12. Process. Innovation is a team sport. Organizations, ecosystems and communities should measure, manage and improve their innovation processes to deliver results that are predictable, probable and profitable. Agile methods supported by automation shorten the time from idea to implementation.

 12. 创新过程。创新是一项团队活动。企业、生态系统和社区应该衡量、管理和改善创新流程,使交付的成果具有可预测性、可信性和盈利性。灵活的方法得到自动化的支持,可以把从创意到执行的时间缩短。

 Next steps

 下一步

 We have all witnessed how the music and book industries have been transformed by companies such as Apple and Amazon through digitization. Transforming cities, energy grids and health-care systems will be harder. It will need technology breakthroughs, alignment of interests, investment and collaboration across many stakeholders.

 我们都亲眼看到,苹果和亚马逊等公司是如何通过数字化改造使音乐和图书行业发生转型的。城市、能源网格和卫生保健系统的转型将会更加困难,因为这几个领域的转型需要技术上的突破,需要将许多利益相关者的兴趣、投资和合作结合起来。

 Different sectors should explore how disruptive technologies can transform their domain. For example in health care, wirelessly transmitting information from electrocardiograms (a heart-activity test), and using cloud-based analytics, could detect the early onset of conditions such as cardiac fibrillation.

 不同的部门应该探索如何利用颠覆性的技术改变自己的领域。例如:在医疗卫生方面,通过无线传输获得心电图信息(心脏活动测试信息),然后使用云分析,可以检测出一些疾病的初期发作,如心房颤动。

 “The mantra is 'fail fast, scale fast'.”

 “口头禅是:‘失败容易升级快’”

 Governments should create innovation strategies that build capacity and focus efforts on nationally important problems. Road maps that set out a sequence of problems to be solved and the innovations required — such as the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors — can direct efforts efficiently. Imagine the power of a European or globally agreed road map for smarter cities, more sustainable electrical grids or health-care transformation. The risks of collaboration can be reduced by publishing model contracts for public–private partnerships. Measurement instruments such as Europe's Innovation Union Scoreboard can identify which areas of a country's innovation ecosystem need to be strengthened.

 政府应该制定创新战略,提高能力,重视全国性重要项目的建设。明确解决系列问题和创新所需要的发展蓝图,能够有效地指导工作,如:国际半导体技术发展蓝图。想象一下,如果利用一幅欧洲或全球商定的发展蓝图,创建更加智慧的城市,实施更具持续性的电网或保健系统转型,那么这股力量该有多大。通过发布公私合作的标准合同,可以降低合作风险。像欧洲创新联盟记分牌这样测量工具,可以识别一个国家创新生态系统的哪些区域需要加强。

 The EU should expand its ambition beyond creating a European Research Area to nurturing a European Innovation Ecosystem. It is promising that a priority for the current Dutch presidency of the EU is ensuring that all European funding instruments focus more on innovation. EU research commissioner Carlos Moedas proposed that the establishment of a European Innovation Council (EIC) would be an important intervention. The EIC could be the steward of an overall European innovation strategy and of societal-challenge road maps.

 欧盟应该拥有更加远大的志向,不要局限于仅仅建立一个欧洲研究区,而是要培育一个欧洲创新生态系统。这样的系统是有前途的:欧盟荷兰籍现任主席的一个优先事项就是确保欧洲所有的融资手段都要更加注重创新。欧盟研究专员卡洛斯·莫达斯提议建立欧洲创新委员会(EIC),这将成为一个重要的介入途径。欧洲创新委员会可能会成为整个欧洲创新战略和解决社会问题的管理机构。

 Governments should encourage the adoption of innovations as well as their creation. They should modulate spending, incentives and policy depending on technology maturity. Immature technologies with high potential need research and pilot projects funded; more-proven prototypes require support for capital deployment cost as well as incentives such as tax credits or loan guarantees. For example, in the United States, incentive payments were used to encourage physicians to adopt electronic health records. Leaders should note the public's increasing desire to be involved in innovation efforts, as exemplified by citizen-science initiatives.

 各国政府应该鼓励采用创新技术及创新成果,应该根据技术的成熟性来调节开支、激励机制和政策。具有高潜力的不成熟技术需要利用资金来进行研究和启动试点项目;更加成熟的原型需要资本配置的支持,如税收抵免或贷款担保等激励机制。例如:在美国,利用奖金来鼓励医生采用电子健康记录。领导者应该注意到,公众参与创新工作的愿望日益高涨,这一点通过公众科学的倡议活动已经得到证实。

 A cultural shift is at the core of open innovation 2.0. The technology is ready — are we?

 文化转变是开放式创新2.0的核心。这项技术已经准备好了……我们准备好了吗?

译自:http://www.nature.com/17 May 2016

原著:Martin Curley(马丁·柯利) 

作者简介:Martin Curley is vice-president at Intel Corporation and director of Intel Labs Europe, based in Dublin, Ireland.马丁·柯利是英特尔公司副总裁兼英特尔公司欧洲实验室主任,该实验室位于爱尔兰的都柏林。

     干露露默哀后脱衣,表达对谁的尊重?(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客


抓虾    google reader    鲜果   有道    QQ邮箱

月亮飞船经典日志导读

开心小妹(组图)

白衣美腿少女的诱惑(组图)

【游戏】能坚持住吗(⊙_⊙)?

3D空战(游戏)

数据共享:惠及所有领域(图)

阿努克-维普雷希特的动态服装(图)

太阳能发电的另外一种方法(图)

手机曲屏并非骗人的花招(图)

玻璃洁净不结雾(图)

间谍基地之一:美国中央情报局(组图)

石墨烯能够提高能量存储能力(图)

香味弥漫的夜总会(图)

 百科大全

新朋友置入博客的方法点击美女赏析模块代码复制 - gzbopai - GZ博派什么是代码及代码怎么用?









海底世界博古通今奇方妙药民间土方在线读报视觉大餐博客技巧新修藏经生活宝典生命科学宇宙探秘地球环境新书上架在线工具博客游戏实用网址日记边框电脑技巧美女赏析代码使用
家常好菜星座物语购物中心天气在线银行汇集旅游天空租房买房美食天下汽车之家健康成长宠物贴吧时尚女性少儿频道职业搜索手机之家各地大学音乐搜吧游戏基地视频直播电影资讯
新闻联播小说聚集军事基地图片素材非常动漫体育赛事交友天地明星聚集社区论坛笑话大全软件工具空间博客设计学院硬件精灵桌面壁纸摄影部落实用百科曲艺小品篮球播吧法律顾问
民间实用验方(皮肤科)2009年11月4日 - 杨东 - 杨东小园
  评论这张
 
阅读(718)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017