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欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

用博客作平台传播科学新闻 以翻译为途径普及科学知识

 
 
 

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博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》、《科技日报》、《健康时报》、《健康报》、《英语世界》、《英语知识》、《科技英语学习》、《科学之友》、《科学与文化》、《世界科学》、《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

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碳 非 敌 人(图)   

2017-05-18 08:29:53|  分类: 地球环境 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

碳 非 敌 人(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

晨雾的笼罩下,园艺师在加拿大温哥华会议中心种着草的屋顶上将草耙起来。

碳 非 敌 人(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

一个有四层楼高的中庭,内外墙上都种着绿色植物,有助于为荷兰20/20公园的博世西门子体验中心提供清新的空气。 

Carbon is not the enemy

胡德良   译
Design with the natural cycle in mind to ensure that carbon ends up in the right places, urges William McDonough.
威廉·麦克唐纳极力主张:精心利用自然循环去进行设计,确保将碳终结于合适的场所中。

Carbon has a bad name. The 2015 Paris climate agreement calls for a balance between carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and to earthbound carbon sinks. Climate Neutral Now, a United Nations initiative, encourages businesses and individuals to voluntarily measure, reduce and offset their greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050. The American Institute of Architects has challenged the architecture community worldwide to become carbon neutral by 2030. The Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance, an international network of urban-sustainability directors, aims to slash its cities' greenhouse-gas emissions by 80% by 2050. 

 碳有着坏名声。2015年在巴黎达成的气候协议要求,释放到大气中的二氧化碳跟沉积于地球中的二氧化碳要取得平衡。“气候中立现在时”是联合国发起的一项行动,鼓励企业和个人自愿参与测量,到2050年减少并抵消自身的温室气体排放。美国建筑师协会已经向全世界的建筑行业发起挑战,到2030年做到碳中性。碳中性城市联盟是一个城市可持续发展主导者的国际网络,其目标是到2050年将成员市的温室气体排放降低80%

 ‘Low carbon’, ‘zero carbon’, ‘decarbonization’, ‘negative carbon’, ‘neutral carbon’, even ‘a war on carbon’ — all are part of the discourse. If we can reduce our carbon emissions, and shrink our carbon footprint, the thinking goes, we can bring down the carbon enemy. It’s no wonder that businesses, institutions and policymakers struggle to respond.

 “低碳”、“零碳”、“脱碳”、“负碳”、“中性碳”、甚至“碳战争”,都是讨论话题的一部分。主导思想是这样的:如果我们可以降低碳排放,减少碳足迹,那么我们就可以降服碳敌人。难怪,企业、机构和决策部门都在努力应对碳排放。

 But carbon — the element — is not the enemy. Climate change is the result of breakdowns in the carbon cycle caused by us: it is a design failure. Anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere make airborne carbon a material in the wrong place, at the wrong dose and for the wrong duration. It is we who have made carbon toxic — like lead in our drinking water or nitrates in our rivers. In the right place, carbon is a resource and a tool.

 但是,碳作为一种元素,并非敌人。气候变化是由于我们破坏了碳循环而造成的,这属于设计上的失败。人类活动产生的温室气体释放到大气中,使空气中的碳成为一种以过高浓度、过长时间停留在不合适场所的材料。是我们自己使碳有了毒性,结果就像我们饮用水中的铅或我们河流中的硝酸盐。在合适的场所中,碳是一种资源,也是一种工具。

 Carbon dioxide is the currency of photosynthesis, a source of Earth’s capacity for regeneration. Soil carbon is the guarantor of healthy ecosystems and food and water security. Carbon atoms are the building blocks of life. Wool, cotton and silk are carbon compounds, as are many industrial polymers and pure ‘supercarbons’ such as diamonds and graphene.

 二氧化碳是光合作用的“通行证”,是地球再生能力的来源。土壤中的碳是健康生态系统以及粮食安全和水安全的保障。碳原子是构成生命的基础材料,羊毛、棉花和丝绸是碳化合物,许多工业聚合物也是碳化合物,像金刚石和石墨烯之类的纯“超碳”也是碳构成的。

 After 30 years of designing sustainable buildings and landscapes that manage carbon, I believe it is time to breathe new life into the carbon conversation. Rather than declare war on carbon emissions, we can work with carbon in all its forms. To enable a new relationship with carbon, I propose a new language — living, durable and fugitive — to define ways in which carbon can be used safely, productively and profitably. Aspirational and clear, it signals positive intentions, enjoining us to do more good rather than simply be less bad.

 至于碳管理,设计了30年的可持续建筑和景观之后,我认为现在正是往气候对话中注入新生机的时候。我们不是要对碳排放进行宣战,而是要对各种形式的碳进行合理利用。为了能够跟碳建立一种新的关系,我提出了一种新型语言——生物碳、持久碳和短期碳,用来界定利用碳的方式——以安全的、富有成效的、有利可图的方式去利用碳。这种语言志向远大,目的明确,标志着我们拥有积极的意图,要求我们去多做有益的事,而不是简单地少做有害的事。

 Words drive actions

 语言促使行动

 It is easy to lose one’s way in the climate conversation. Few of the terms are clearly defined or understood. Take ‘carbon neutral’. The European Union considers electricity generated by burning wood as carbon neutral — as if it releases no CO2 at all. Their carbon neutrality relies problematically on the growth and replacement of forests that will demand decades to centuries of committed management. Another strategy is to offset fossil-fuel use by renewable-energy credits — this still means an increase in the global concentration of atmospheric CO2.

 在气候对话中,人们很容易迷失方向。几乎所有的术语都没有明确的定义,人们对其也没有一个清晰的认识。以“碳中性”为例吧,欧盟把燃烧木材发电当做碳中性,就好像这样发电根本不释放二氧化碳似的。这种碳中性概念是有问题的,因为它依赖林木的生长和更新换代,这往往需要几十年至几百年的精心管理才能做到。另外一种战略是,通过可再生能源信用来抵偿化石燃料的使用,但这仍然意味着大气中二氧化碳浓度在整体上会所有升高。

 Even more confusing is the term ‘carbon negative’. This is sometimes used to refer to the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. For example, Bhutan’s prime minister has indicated that his country is carbon negative, because its existing forests sequester more CO2 than the country emits and Bhutan exports hydroelectric power (see go.nature.com/2es9lgt). But aren’t trees having a positive effect on atmospheric carbon, and hydroelectric power a neutral one?

 更加含糊不清的术语是“碳消极”。这个术语有时用来说明从大气中去除二氧化碳的行为。例如:不丹总理表示,他们的国家是碳消极国家,因为该国现有的森林吸收的二氧化碳比全国释放的二氧化碳还要多,而且不丹还有水力发电的出口。然而,难道说树木对大气中的二氧化碳不是有正面影响的吗?水力发电不是碳中性的吗?

 Carbon sequestration is a long-sought goal. It requires two elements: a way to capture carbon from the atmosphere or a chimney and a way to store it safely and permanently. But some so-called carbon-storage methods are paradoxical. For example, in enhanced oil recovery, CO2 is injected into rock formations to flush out remnant crude oil, which is eventually burned.

 碳固存是个长期追求的目标,该技术需要两个因素:一个是要找到办法从大气中或烟囱中捕获碳,另一个是要有办法将碳安全地、永久地存储起来。但是,一些所谓的碳存储方法也是有矛盾的。例如:提高采油量,将二氧化碳注入岩层中,将残余的原油冲出来,而这些油最终是要被烧掉的。

 At the same time, enterprises are starting to announce their hopes to be ‘carbon positive’ by, for example, producing more renewable energy than their operations require, or by sequestering carbon through planting trees.

 同时,企业开始宣布它们希望做到“碳积极”,比如说,通过生产超过自身运行所需要的可再生能源,或者通过植树吸收碳,去实现这个愿望。

 Such terms highlight a confusion about the qualities and value of CO2. In the United States, the gas is classified as a commodity by the Bureau of Land Management, a pollutant by the Environmental Protection Agency and as a financial instrument by the Chicago Climate Exchange.

 这样的术语突出了在二氧化碳的特点和价值方面存在混乱。在美国,这种气体被土地管理局归类为商品,被环境保护局归类为污染物,而在芝加哥气候交易所却被当作一种金融工具。

 A new language of carbon recognizes the material and quality of carbon so that we can imagine and implement new ways forward (see ‘The new language of carbon’). It identifies three categories of carbon — living, durable and fugitive — and a characteristic of a subset of the three, called working carbon. It also identifies three strategies related to carbon management and climate change — carbon positive, carbon neutral and carbon negative.

 一种新型碳语言可以识别出碳的原料属性和碳的品质属性,使我们能够想象出向前发展的新方法,并对这些新方法加以贯彻执行(见下面的“新型碳语言示意图”)。新型碳语言将碳分为三个类别:生物碳、持久碳和短期碳;从三种碳中细分出来一种特性,被称为循环谈。这种碳语言还可以区分跟碳管理和气候变化相关的三个战略——碳积极、碳中性和碳消极。

 The new language of carbon

 新型碳语言

   

碳 非 敌 人(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

 

大气中存在太多的碳是有害的。相反,应该将碳以持久的形式保存于如塑料、木材和生物等有机体中。材料回收以及滋养土壤会确保碳以合理的量终结于合适的场所中。

短期碳

持久碳

生物碳

短期碳终结于不理想的场所,可能会产生毒性。这类碳包括由于燃烧化石燃料、“变废物为能源”的工厂、甲烷泄露、森林砍伐、绝大多数产业化农耕和城市开发而释放到大气中的二氧化碳。海洋中的塑料也是短期碳。

持久碳是封存于稳定固体中的碳,如煤和石灰岩,或者存在于可回收的聚合物中,可以用后再用。这种碳形式多样,从可重复利用的纤维(如纸张和布料)到建筑物和基础设施要素等,可以持续几代人的时间,然后还可以重复利用。

生物碳是有机碳,在生物圈中流动,提供新鲜的食物、茁壮的林木和肥沃的土壤,这是我们要培养和发展的。土壤中包含生物碳,存在形式为真菌、细菌、腐殖质、豆类植物和草类。

循环碳是为人所利用的碳。短期循环碳包括化石燃料。

持久循环碳包括可回收利用和可重复利用的材料。

在农业上利用生物循环碳。

管理策略

碳消极

碳中性

碳积极

指利用各种形式的碳污染土地、水和大气的行为。例如:将甲烷释放到大气中,或者将塑料废品倾倒于海洋中,这就是碳消极行为。

为了跨代利用,把碳转化为持久的、附着于地面的形式,或保存于持久的、附着于地面的循环中;或者也可以指像太阳能、风能和水电等不释放碳的可再生能源。

指将大气中的碳转化成能够改善土壤营养的形式,或者将其转化成像聚合体或固体集料之类的持久形式。其中还包括从有机材料、食物垃圾、可降解聚合物和污水中回收碳,将其变为土壤营养物质。

 Start with the soil

 从土壤开始

 How do we work with the carbon cycle to preserve and enhance the benefits it naturally provides? From the soil up.

 为了保持和加强碳循环自行提供的益处,我们该怎样利用碳循环呢?答案是,从土壤开始。

 Carbon is at the heart of soil health. In healthy ecosystems, when plants convert CO2 into carbon-based sugars — liquid carbon — some flows to shoots, leaves and flowers. The rest nourishes the soil food web, flowing from the roots of plants to communities of soil microbes. In exchange, the microbes share minerals and micronutrients that are essential to plants’ health. Drawn into the leaves of plants, micronutrients increase the rate of photosynthesis, driving new growth, which yields more liquid carbon for the microbes and more micronutrients for the fungi and the plants. Below ground, liquid carbon moves through the food web, where it is transformed into soil carbon — rich, stable and life-giving. This organic matter also gives soil a sponge-like structure, which improves its fertility and its ability to hold and filter water.

 碳是土壤健康的核心。在健康的生态系统中,当植物将二氧化碳转化为碳基糖——液态碳的时候,一些碳流入植物的苗、根和花中。其余的碳滋养土壤食物网,从植物的根部流出,到土壤微生物群体中。反过来,微生物中含有健康植物所必需的矿物质和微量营养成分。微量营养成分被吸收到植物的叶子中,提高了光合作用的速率,这样又能够为微生物产生更多的液态碳,进而为真菌和植物创造更多的微量营养成分。在地下,液态碳通过食物网循环,在食物网中转化为土壤碳——这种碳蕴藏丰富、稳定可靠,具有赋予生命的作用。这种有机物质还能够使土壤呈现海绵状结构,提高土壤的肥沃度,加强土壤的蓄水能力和滤水能力。

 This is how a healthy carbon cycle supports life. This flow kept carbon in the right place in the right concentration, tempered the global climate, fuelled growth and nourished the evolution of human societies for 10,000 years.

 健康的碳循环就是这样支持植物生长的。在10,000年的时间里,这种健康的循环将碳以合适的浓度保存在合适的场所中,调节气候,加快植物生长,促进了人类社会的发展。

 Many soil researchers believe it could do so again. Ecologist and soil scientist Christine Jones, founder of the Amazing Carbon Project, describes the “photosynthetic bridge” between atmospheric carbon and liquid carbon, and the “microbial bridge” between plants and biologically active, carbon-rich soils as twin cornerstones of landscape health and climate restoration.

 许多土壤研究人员认为碳循环仍然能够做到这些。生态学家兼土壤科学家克里斯廷·琼斯是“惊奇碳工程”的创始人,她描述了大气碳和液态碳之间的“光合桥梁”,以及植物和生物活性之间的“微生物桥梁”,她认为富碳土壤是健康景观和恢复土壤的双基石。

 David Johnson at the New Mexico State University Institute for Energy and the Environment in Las Cruces has studied the carbon–microbial bridge. He found that the most important factor for promoting plant growth and cultivating soil carbon was not added nitrogen or phosphorus but the carbon inputs from other plants.

 新墨西哥州立大学拉斯克鲁斯分校能源和环境研究所的大卫·约翰逊研究了作为微生物桥梁的碳。他发现:促进植物生长、培养土壤碳的最重要的因素不是增加氮或磷,而是通过其他植物增加的碳输入。

 Design for living

 为生活而设计

 Let’s keep those carbon bridges open on all landscapes — rural and urban. Let’s use carbon from the atmosphere to fuel biological processes, build soil carbon and reverse climate change. Let’s adopt regenerative farming and urban-design practices to increase photosynthetic capacity, enhance biological activity, build urban food systems, and cultivate closed loops of carbon nutrients. Let’s turn sewage-treatment plants into fertilizer factories. Let’s recognize carbon as an asset and the life-giving carbon cycle as a model for human designs.

 让我们在所有的地区,不管是农村地区还是城市地区,都要使这些碳桥梁保持开放的状态;让我们利用大气中的碳来促进生物的生长过程,营造土壤碳,使气候变化发生逆转;让我们采用再生农业、进行城市设计实践以提高光合能力,改善生物活性,建造城市食物系统,培养闭合的碳营养圈;让我们把污水处理厂变为化肥厂;让我们认识到,碳是一种资产,赋予生命的碳循环是人类设计的一种模式。

 All designs — from products to buildings, cities and farms — could be carbon positive. This may take a century, but that’s how long it took us to get into our current carbon calamity. The sooner we start, the better. By 2030, our exuberantly urbanizing planet is expected to convert more habitat and farmland into cities than all previous urban growth combined. More than 2 billion urbanites will live in homes, attend schools and work in factories that are not yet built. Despite these challenges, there are models of hope.

 从工业产品到建筑物、城市和农场,对这些进行全部设计,可能会产生碳积极性。这可能需要一个世纪的时间,但也正是在一个世纪的时间里我们使自己陷入了目前的碳灾难中。行动得越早越好。到2030年,我们地球上热火朝天的城市化可望将更多的动物栖息地和农田变成市区,这比以前所有的城市扩容加起来还要多。20多亿城市居民将要居住的房子、上的学校以及工作的工厂都还没有建造起来。尽管这些挑战是存在的,但是也仍然存在充满希望的设计方案。

 In 1989 my architecture firm designed a day-care facility in Frankfurt, Germany, based on ‘a building like a tree’ that could be operated by children, who would move solar shutters, open and close windows, grow food on roof terraces and irrigate the gardens with rainwater.

 1989年,我的建筑公司在德国的法兰克福设计了一种日托设施,该设施基于一种“建筑物像树木”的观念,可以由儿童操作——他们可以移动太阳能百叶窗,可以开关窗户,可以在屋顶露台上种粮,可以用雨水浇灌花园。

 The idea of ‘buildings like trees’ and ‘cities like forests’ endured, and we started to approach our product, building and city designs as photosynthetic and biologically active, accruing solar energy, cycling nutrients, releasing oxygen, fixing nitrogen, purifying water, providing diverse habitats, building soil and changing with the seasons.

 “建筑物像树木”和“城市像森林”的观念延续下来,我们开始把我们的产品、建筑物和城市设计成能够进行光合作用的、具有生物活性的作品——可以积累太阳能、循环营养成分、释放氧气、固定氮气、净化水源、提供多种栖息地、滋养土壤、随季节而变化。

 The Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies at Oberlin College in Ohio, which we designed, is a built example of this philosophy. It purifies its waste water and sewage in an on-site system that produces carbon-rich organic compost. This year the project is producing solar energy at an annual rate of 40% more than it needs. The building still relies on the electrical grid when solar energy is unavailable. Soon, with new and affordable on-site thermal and electric battery storage systems, buildings like this can be both carbon and energy positive.

 我们设计的俄亥俄州奥伯林学院亚当-约瑟夫-刘易斯环境研究中心就是基于这种理念的一个建筑典范。该中心能够通过一个现场系统净化自身产生的废水和污水,这个现场系统可以生产出富碳的有机混合肥料。今年,这个项目生产的太阳能超出了其自身年需求量的40%。当太阳能不可用时,这栋建筑仍然可以依靠电网供电。很快,随着低价位的新型现场热存储系统和电池存储系统的问世,像这样的建筑物会兼具碳积极性和能源积极性。

 In the Netherlands, Park 20|20 near Amsterdam applies these carbon-positive design strategies at the campus scale. Next door, the Valley at Schiphol Trade Park, the country’s national hub for the circular economy, will scale these and many other innovations to create an urban ecology of work, supply chains and collaborative spaces. The development will be a network of integrated buildings, landscapes and technical systems operating as a connected whole. Each building is oriented to the path of the Sun to maximize exposure during winter and shade during summer. Photovoltaic arrays and green roofs are the system’s leaves and roots, harvesting renewable energy, absorbing and filtering water, producing food and providing habitat for other living things in a vibrant, sustainable business community.

 在荷兰,阿姆斯特丹附近的20 | 20公园在园区规模上应用了碳积极的设计策略。与之相邻的斯希普霍尔贸易公园谷地是该国的国家循环经济中心,这里将要推广应用这些设计策略和许多其他的创新,要创建一种具有工作空间、供应链空间和协作空间的城市生态。该中心开发出来之后将会成为建筑、景观和技术系统的综合网络,作为一个互相连接的整体来运行。每栋建筑都朝向阳光射来的方向,在冬季最大限度地接触阳光,在夏季最大限度地遮蔽阳光。光伏阵列和绿色屋顶相当于该系统的叶子和根系,能够在生机勃勃的、可持续发展的商业社区中收获可再生能源、吸收和过滤水、生产粮食、为其他生物提供栖息地。

 The energy sector, too, can be generously carbon positive. SunPower, based in San Jose, California, and other solar providers are developing ‘solar orchards’ — power plants that perform as working farms. Rotating arrays of elevated solar panels shade the earth and provide habitat for grassland, which captures water, nitrogen and carbon to build soil health, can include legumes to fix nitrogen, and can provide food for grazing animals, in turn providing protein and wool. By design, the power plant generates an abundance of benefits: renewable energy, biodiversity, food, soil restoration, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, water conservation, fibre products, and agricultural and manufacturing jobs. Thus working durable carbon creates and supports living carbon while reducing fugitive carbon, all in an economically robust and profitable model.

 能源生产部门也可以大力实施碳积极策略。总部位于加州圣何塞的SunPower公司和其他太阳能供应商正在开发“太阳能果园”——能够作为农场来运行的发电厂。高架太阳能电池板阵列旋转着遮挡地面,为草地中的生物提供栖息地,草地又能够捕获水、氮和碳来增进土壤的健康状况,还可以通过种植豆类来固氮,为吃草的动物提供食物,而这些动物又能够为人类提供蛋白和毛织品。通过设计,这样的发电厂能够产生多重利益:可再生能源、生物多样性、食物、土壤恢复、营养循环、碳固存、节水、纤维产品、农业和制造业方面工作岗位等。这种持久循环碳会产生和支持生物碳,同时也会减少短期碳。从经济方面来说,这些都是在可靠的、有利可图的模式中运行的。

 Such designs offer an inspiring model for climate action. It all starts with changing the way we talk about carbon. Our goal is simple and positive: a delightfully diverse, safe, healthy and just world — with clean air, soil, water and energy — economically, equitably, ecologically and elegantly enjoyed.

 这样的设计为气候行动提供了一个鼓舞人心的模式,而这一切都是开始于谈论碳的方式有所改变。我们的目标是简单而积极的:建设一个令人愉快的世界——一个多样化、安全、健康、合理的世界,一个有着新鲜空气、洁净土壤、清洁水源和绿色能源的世界,一个为我们提供经济利益、生态文明、优雅环境、公正平台的世界。

译自:http://www.nature.com/14 November 2016

原著:William McDonough(威廉·麦克唐纳)  
 Affiliations: William McDonough is an architect and author specializing in sustainable development. He is founder of William McDonough + Partners and McDonough Innovation, and co-founder of MBDC (a design chemistry firm), in Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. He is also a founder of the Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute.
作者简介:威廉·麦克唐纳是一位建筑师兼作家,专门研究可持续发展。他是威廉-麦克唐纳+合作者公司以及麦克唐纳创新公司的创始人,还是设计化学企业——MBDC公司的共同创始人。
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