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博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》、《科技日报》、《健康时报》、《健康报》、《英语世界》、《英语知识》、《科技英语学习》、《科学之友》、《科学与文化》、《世界科学》、《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

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立法委员抨击白宫科技办公室(图)   

2017-05-07 08:15:21|  分类: 名人风采 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

立法委员抨击白宫科技办公室

胡德良   译

 The White House science office hasn’t been very productive under President Barack Obama, says the chairman of a key congressional research spending panel. And Representative John Culberson (R–TX) says he’d like to see it downsized.

 国会研究支出小组是一个关键部门,该小组的组长称:在巴拉克·奥巴马总统的领导下,白宫科技办公室没有取得太大的成效。而且,众议员约翰·卡伯森称:他希望白宫科技办公室缩小规模。

 Culberson, whose House of Representatives subcommittee oversees the budgets for NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, has never been a fan of John Holdren, Obama’s science adviser. And his latest comments are likely to further heighten anxiety among scientific leaders about how the U.S. research enterprise will fare under President-elect Donald Trump.

 卡伯森的众议院小组委员会负责监督国家航空航天管理局(NASA)、国家科学基金会(NSF)、国家海洋和大气管理局(NOAA)和国家标准与技术研究院的预算,而卡伯森从未成为奥巴马科学顾问约翰·霍尔德伦的粉丝。在当选的总统唐纳德·特朗普领导下,美国的科学企业将会如何发展呢?对此,卡伯森最近的评论可能进一步加剧了科学领域领导人的焦虑。

 The commerce, justice, and science (CJS) appropriations subcommittee that Culberson chairs also oversees the White House Office of Science and Technology (OSTP), which Congress created in 1976. The office has traditionally been led by the president’s science adviser, and Holdren also co-chairs the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), an eminent group of outsiders.

 卡伯森领导的商业、司法和科学(CJS)拨款委员会同样负责监督白宫科技办公室(OSTP)。OSTP是于1976年由国会创建的,从传统上来讲该办公室由总统的科学顾问来领导,而霍尔德伦同时还是科学技术顾问委员会(PCAST??)副会长。对于圈外人士来讲,PCAST??是一个受人尊崇的组织。

 But Culberson says that arrangement isn’t working well. “I’d be hard-pressed to identify any tangible, specific accomplishments or achievements by that office,” he told ScienceInsider yesterday in a phone interview from his Capitol Hill office in Washington, D.C.

 但是,卡伯森称:这样的机构设置不能卓有成效地运行。昨天,在华盛顿哥伦比亚特区国会大厦的办公室里,卡伯森接受电话采访时告诉《科学》杂志“科学知情人”栏目的记者说:“我很难发现那个办公室所做出的实际而具体的成就。”

 His unhappiness with the current scientific bureaucracy reflects his overall governing philosophy, in which smaller is better. “The president needs a science adviser to keep him posted and give him guidance on all of those areas,” he says. “But I don’t know that [OSTP] needs to have a large staff or be a big operation. … In my mind there are already too many termite mounds in Washington[, D.C]. We need to shrink the size of government in any way we can.”

 卡伯森对当前科学官僚体系表示不满,这也反映了他的整体管理理念——越精简越好。“总统需要一个科学顾问,以保持消息灵通,并在所有的科学领域接受顾问的指导。”他说,“但是我不明白为何OSTP要保持一个庞大的员工队伍或为何要做成一个大型业务……在我看来,华盛顿哥伦比亚特区已经拥有太多的臃肿机构,我们需要尽一切努力削减政府部门的规模。”

 OSTP is a tiny stitch in the fabric of federal science. Its $5.5 million budget would be a rounding error for most federal agencies, and about half of its 120-person staff is on loan from elsewhere in the government. At the same time, the Obama administration has given it a prominent role in coordinating science and technology across all agencies. (Congress has done likewise in various pieces of legislation over the years.)

 在联邦科学机构中,OSTP只是一个小小的缩影。OSTP550万美元的预算,这对于绝大多数联邦机构来说只不过是四舍五入的一个误差额,而该办公室的120个员工中有半数是从政府别的部门借调来的。奥巴马政府赋予OSTP一个突出的职能——协调所有机构中的科技业务。多年来,国会在立法的方方面面也做了同样的协调工作。

 Last week the leaders of 29 scientific and academic organizations (including AAAS, which publishesScience), implored Trump to maintain its high profile, starting with the prompt selection of a successor to Holdren who can help fill other science jobs in his administration.

 上周,29个科学和学术机构(包括出版《科学》杂志的美国科学促进会)的领导人,恳求特朗普保持鲜明的姿态,尽快选出霍尔德伦的继任者,希望这位继任者能够帮助填补政府中其他的科学岗位。

 “We urge that you quickly appoint a science advisor with the title of Assistant to the President for Science and Technology,” they wrote in a letter to the president-elect. “This senior-level advisor can assist you in determining effective ways to use science and technology to address major national challenges. Moreover, this individual can coordinate relevant science and technology policy and personnel decisions within the executive branch of government.”

 “我们极力主张您能够尽快地任命一位科学顾问,其头衔为总统科学技术助理。”那些领导人在给当选总统特朗普的一封信中写道,“这位高级顾问能够协助您确定有效的方法,利用科技来应对国家面临的重大挑战。此外,在政府行政部门之内,这位顾问还能够协调相关的科技政策和人事决策。”

 CJS is one of 12 panels in the House (there’s also a dozen in the Senate) that oversee federal spending. Since becoming CJS chairman in January 2015, Culberson has used his position as a “cardinal” to advocate for his scientific priorities, starting with a multi–billion-dollar NASA mission to a jovian moon that some scientists believe may harbor life.

 CJS拨款委员会是众议院的12个专门小组之一(参议院中也有12个专门小组),负责监督联邦的支出。自从20151月当上CJS拨款委员会主席之后,卡伯森利用自己的职位优势,提倡他所认为的科学优先事项,开始了耗资数十亿美元的NASA航天任务,探索某些科学家认为拥有生命的一颗木星卫星。

 He will be trying to protect those priorities—which include the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and border security—as Congress spends the next 2 weeks cobbling together another short-term spending bill to keep the government open. The current agreement, called a continuing resolution (CR), runs out on 9 December. And although a CR is intended to hold agencies to their current budget, legislators have the authority to make exceptions.

 卡伯森将会努力保持这些优先事项,其中包括联邦调查局(FBI)的业务和边境安全问题。而国会在接下来的两周内要匆匆制定另外一个短期支出法案,以保持政府工作的开展。目前的协议被称为持续性决议(CR),于129日到期。尽管制定持续性决议是为了让各部门保住目前的预算,但是立法机构有权做出例外的决定。

Culberson discussed the CR and many other issues with ScienceInsider. Here is a transcript of that conversation, edited for length and clarity.

 卡伯森跟《科学》杂志“科学知情人”栏目的记者讨论了持续性决议以及许多其他问题,下面是此次谈话记录,为了使其长短合适、清晰易懂,对谈话进行了编辑。

 Q: Does it matter when President-elect Trump chooses a science adviser?

 问:新当选的总统特朗普选择科学顾问的时间节点重要吗?

 A: It’s always helpful for a new administration to act early in choosing people for key positions. And the science adviser and NASA administrator are a very important part of preserving American leadership in scientific research and space exploration.

 答:对于新一届政府来说,尽早采取行动,为重要的岗位确定人选,这样总会有所帮助的。科学顾问和NASA局长是非常重要的职位,他们能够帮助美国在科学研究和太空探索领域保持领先地位。

 Q: Have you spoken with the transition team?

 问:您跟过渡团队谈过话吗?

 A: Yes, I’ve been in contact with them and made a number of suggestions. I’m trying to do everything I can to make sure the CJS bill is in good shape for the new administration.

 答:谈过。我一直跟他们联系,而且还提出了一些建议。我正在尽一切努力,确保CJS拨款委员会的资金在新政府各部门之间实现合理分配。

 Q: Do you know who is handling science and space issues during the transition?

 问:您知道谁在过渡期间掌管科学和太空事务吗?

 A: I’ve been in touch with several people on the team, and [Vice President–elect] Mike Pence is a friend and I’ve spoken with him, too. I’m confident the new president will appoint the best person to head NASA and to be his science adviser.

 答:我跟过渡团队中的好几个人保持着联系。新当选的副总统迈克·彭斯(Mike Pence)是我的朋友,我也跟他谈过话。我相信,新总统将会任命最佳人选来统领NASA、来当他的科学顾问。

 Q: Would you like to see any changes to the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy?

 问:您想让白宫科技政策办公室发生变化吗?

 A: I’d be hard-pressed to identify any tangible, specific accomplishments or achievements of the office. It’s important that we make government as efficient as possible. I think the president obviously needs a science adviser. But there are other places where he can get good advice. [NSF] is the nation’s leader in scientific research, and NASA is responsible for preserving America’s leadership in space exploration. NOAA is responsible for making sure that weather forecasting and climate data is the best that it can be, and so on.

 答:我很难发现那个办公室所做出的实际而具体的成就。重要的是,我们要使政府尽可能高效地开展工作。我认为,总统显然需要一位科学顾问。然而,总统也可以从其他部门获得良好的建议。NSF在科学研究方面处于领先地位,NASA负责使美国在太空探索领域保持领先地位,NOAA负责确保天气预报和气候数据是最有效的……等等。

 Q: Is there a role for PCAST?

 问:PCAST会起作用吗?

 A: Well, that’s up to the new president. But in my mind there are already too many termite mounds in Washington. We need to shrink the size of government in any way we can. And we have too many advisory committees advising advisory committees, in my opinion.

 答:哦,这就取决于新总统了。在我看来,华盛顿哥伦比亚特区已经拥有太多的臃肿机构,我们需要尽一切努力削减政府部门的规模。我认为,我们的顾问委员会太多了。

 Q: The 21st Century Cures Act (a medical research bill now before Congress) would create a Research Policy Board to try to reduce excessive regulations affecting academic research. It’s based on a report by the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine. Do you think that’s a good idea?

 问:目前《21世纪医疗法案》已经呈递到国会,根据该法案,将要建立一个政策研究委员会,努力减少影响学术研究的过多法规。该法案基于国家科学、工程和医学研究院的一则报告,您认为这是个好主意吗?

 A: I’ve got a lot of faith in the National Academies, and I look to them for guidance on the work that I do in the CJS bill. My admiration for the academy is one reason that I put into the bill the requirement that NASA follow the recommendations of the decadal studies in all the areas they cover. They do great work, and I would always be inclined to follow their recommendations.

 答:我对国家研究院很有信心,对于CJS拨款委员会议案的有关工作,我常常依靠他们给予指导。在国家研究院涵盖的所有领域中,对NASA的要求是要遵从十年研究建议。我之所以将这一要求写进议案,原因之一是我对国家研究院怀有钦佩之感。国家研究院的工作做得很出色,我总是想遵从他们的建议。

 Q: Who would you like to see as NASA administrator, and what qualities and experience should they have?

 问:您想让谁来当NASA局长?当这个局长需要有什么样的素质和经验?

 A: I’ve got a superb candidate in mind. But I’m going to leave that up to the new president.

 答:在我的心目中,有一个极佳的候选人。但是,我要将这个事情留给新总统去抉择。

 Q: Would you accept the job if asked?

 问:如果请您去当这个局长,您会接受这一职位吗?

 A: I love representing the people of west Houston[, Texas], and I can’t think of a better job than helping the Department of Justice, [NSF], NASA, and the commerce department be the best they can be. This is a job I’ve always dreamed of doing, and it’s been everything I hoped for and more. I’ve been able to map out a strategy for NASA to follow the decadal surveys and ensure it is on track to discover life in the oceans of Europa and then launch the first interstellar mission to Alpha Centauri by 2069, through the work of my subcommittee.

 答:我乐意代表德克萨斯州休斯顿西部的人们做事,而我认为最值得做的工作莫过于帮助司法部、NSFNASA和商业部保持最佳状态,这些都是我一直梦寐以求要做的事,是我所期望的一切。而且,还不止于此。我已经为NASA制定出一个战略:遵从十年探索计划,确保将发现木卫二海洋中的生命纳入正规探索渠道;然后到2069年,通过拨款委员会的努力,启动首个星际航天任务,抵达半人马座阿尔法星系。

 Q: Have you talked to the Trump transition team about Europa?

 问:有关木卫二上的生命探索,您跟特朗普的过渡团队谈过话吗?

 A: Right now they are focused on filling the top positions within the administration. But I’ve had good conversations with them on the need to make sure that the U.S. space program is the best on earth and that it will be an American spacecraft that discovers life on another world and achieves interstellar travel and explores an Earth-like planet around a nearby star. There’s lots of support for that in the incoming Congress and in the new administration, and I’m looking forward to make those dreams come through.

 答:目前,他们正在专注于由谁来填补政府内部最重要的职位。但是,我已经跟他们进行过坦白的对话,让他们知道有必要确保美国的航天计划在全球处于最领先的地位,确保将会由美国的航天飞船发现另外一颗星球上的生命、实现星际旅行、探索到一颗恒星附近的类地行星。在即将组建的国会和新一届政府中,这些都得到了广泛的支持,我期待着这些梦想会变成现实。

 Q: Some have suggested reviving the National Space Council. Would that be useful?

 问:有些人建议恢复国家空间委员会,这会有所帮助吗?

 A: I’d have to see what the new administration proposes. But I think there are too many layers of government and advisory committees. A simplified and unified chain of command at NASA that is less political would help the agency immensely. And I will continue to try to make the NASA administrator more like the FBI director [in serving a 10-year term], so it can focus on its mission and worry less about changes in administration. The agency needs stability and certainty and adequate funding to accomplish everything on its plate.

 答:我得看看新政府有什么建议。但是,我认为政府委员会和咨询委员会的层次太多。在NASA,简化并统一指挥系统,减少政治因素,将会对该局大有助益。我将继续努力,使NASA局长像FBI局长一样,任期达到十年,这样NASA才能专注于自己航天任务,不必担心管理上的变动。NASA需要稳定性和确切性,需要足够的资金,来完成所承担的一切任务。

 Q: There’s been talk of moving earth sciences out of NASA.

 问:有人说过,要将地球科学从NASA分出去。您怎么看?

 A: At this point that is very speculative. There’s strong support in Congress for keeping a close eye on planet Earth and understanding our complex planet. And the future level of funding and who’s responsible for earth science will be an ongoing debate with the new administration and the incoming Congress. I’m quite confident there will continue to be strong support for the earth sciences as well as planetary sciences and the human space flight program throughout Congress and in the new administration.

 答:在这个问题上,有着很大的不确定性。在国会中,有人大力支持对地球进行密切关注,支持对这颗复杂星球进行了解。随着新一届政府的成立和新一届国会的组建,未来对于地球科学的资助水平如何以及由谁来负责掌管这一领域,将仍然存在争议。我坚信:对于地球科学、行星科学和人类太空飞行计划,整个国会和新一届政府将会一如既往地予以大力支持。

 Q: Would that be within NASA, or somewhere else in government?

 问:这一领域会留在NASA内部,还是会划分到政府其他部门中?

 A: It will continue to be a topic of ongoing discussion. But nobody in the earth sciences community should be concerned in the least. All of us in Congress are strong supporters of keeping a close eye on planet Earth.

 答:这也将是一个有待继续讨论的问题。但是,地球科学界的人都丝毫没有关注此事。国会中我们所有的人都会大力支持地球科学,都会密切关注地球状况的。

 Q: Would you like science and cyber facilities to be part of a bill to rebuild U.S. roads, ports, and other infrastructure?

 问:在重建美国公路、港口和其他设施方面,您想把科学设施和网络设施作为其中的部分议案而提出吗?

 A: I think it’s important that the United States maintains its leadership in particle physics, and I think it’s unfortunate that we have not. And we have also fallen behind in building the world’s biggest and faster supercomputers. We need to maintain American leadership in astronomy. I’d like to see NSF more deeply involved in the construction and design of the Giant Magellan Telescope, for example. And the radio telescope in [Arecibo,] Puerto Rico, and at Green Bank[, West Virginia,] are getting a little elderly. In order to preserve American leadership in critical areas of scientific discovery and technological achievement, we will need to make the necessary investments in scientific infrastructure. And that will require strong support for NSF and NASA.

 答:我认为,美国在粒子物理方面保持领先地位是很重要的,而遗憾的是我们在这个领域并没有领先。在制造世界上最大最快的超级计算机方面,我们也落后了。我们需要保持在天文学方面的领先地位,例如,我想确保让NSF更加深入地参与到麦哲伦巨型望远镜的建造和设计中来。波多黎各的阿雷西博射电望远镜以及西弗吉尼亚州的绿岸射电望远镜都正在变得有些过时。为了使美国在科学发现和技术成就等关键领域保持领先地位,我们需要在科学基础设施方面进行必要的投资,这就需要对NSFNASA给予大力支持。

 Q: Would that be part of an NSF and NASA bill, or part of an infrastructure bill? And would it need to be paid for?

 问:这属于NSFNASA方面的议案还是属于基础设施方面的议案?获得这样的议案需要付费吗?

 A: It’ll all be part of the debate we’ll be having in the months ahead. But I’m very concerned that America may be slipping in the areas I’ve just mentioned, and I’m going to work hard to make sure that doesn’t happen.

 答:这些都是在未来几个月中需要讨论的部分内容。然而,我很担心美国在我刚刚提到的几个领域可能正在走下坡路,我将做出努力,确保在这几个领域不会退步。

 Q: What’s the biggest downside for researchers if Congress extends the CR through March 2017 or later?

 问:如果国会将持续性决议延长到2017年至3月或更晚,对研究人员最大的不利影响是什么?

 A: We want to make sure that any of the major construction projects, like the vitally important SLS [Space Launch System] rocket system and the Orion human flight program, have stable and predictable funding so that they are not interrupted. That’s the most important thing in defining a CR. And I’m quite confident that they will all be taken care of.

 答:我们想要确保任何重大的项目都要有稳定的、可预测的资助,以便研究不会中断,例如:极其重要的空间发射系统(SLS)中的火箭系统和猎户座载人航天计划等项目。在界定一种持续性决议时,这是最重要的方面。我坚信,所有这些方面都会照顾到。

 Q: And what’s the timing on that?

 问:什么时间会将持续性决议制定出来?

 A: That’s being worked out now. We’ll know certainly by the end of next week.

 答:现在正在制定。我们在下周末一定会知道的。

   
译自:美国《科学》杂志官网(http://www.sciencemag.org/原著:Jeffrey Mervis

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