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博主胡德良:邢台学院外语系英语教授,中国译协专家会员,河北省译协常务理事,邢台市译协副会长。爱好翻译,内容涉及宇宙探秘、医疗卫生、家庭保健、生命科学、能源科学、地球科学、环境科学、散文小说和纪实文学等领域。所译文章曾见于《光明日报》、《科技日报》、《健康时报》、《健康报》、《英语世界》、《英语知识》、《科技英语学习》、《科学之友》、《科学与文化》、《世界科学》、《生命世界》等全国各大报刊。博客特色:英汉对照、图文并茂,融趣味性、科学性、知识性为一体。

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克里克研究所:生物医学科学的圣坛(图)   

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克里克研究所:生物医学科学的圣坛(图) - 月亮飞船 - 欢迎光临月亮飞船的博客

  维维安·李(Vivian Li)博士和安德烈亚斯·舍费尔(Andreas Schaefer)教授在弗朗西斯·克里克研究所的新实验室中。供图:《观察家》杂志记者安东尼奥·奥尔莫斯(Antonio Olmos

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 弗朗西斯·克里克研究所所长保罗·纳斯爵士。供图:《卫报》记者林达·耐林德(

Linda Nylind

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 竣工之后,弗朗西斯·克里克研究所将延伸至

12层,8层位于地面以上,4层位于地面之下。供图:《观察家》杂志记者安东尼奥·奥尔莫斯

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 伦敦圣潘克拉斯附近新落成的弗朗西斯·克里克研究所。供图:《观察家》杂志记者安东尼奥·奥尔莫斯

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 詹姆斯·布里斯科(

James Briscoe)博士(左边)、卡罗琳·希尔(Caroline Hill)博士和尼克·勒斯科姆(Nick Luscombe)教授,均为新落成的弗朗西斯·克里克研究所研究人员。供图:《观察家》杂志记者安东尼奥·奥尔莫斯

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Paul Rattigan

Francis Crick’s ?700m altar to biomedical science

The new institute in London will be one of the largest, most sophisticated research facilities of its kind. Its director, Sir Paul Nurse, shares his vision of the future
伦敦一家新成立的研究所将成为最大、最先进的同类研究机构之一。有关该研究所未来的愿景,所长保罗·纳斯爵士分享了他的看法。
胡德良   译

 They call it Sir Paul’s Cathedral – and walking past the Francis Crick Institute on a glorious winter’s day it is easy to see why. The sun bounces off the enormous coloured panes that stretch high above the streets around St Pancras, illuminating what will soon be one of Europe’s largest biomedical research facilities, while its solid, ochre facade echoes the immutable exterior of many an ancient edifice.

 人们称之为保罗爵士大教堂——在阳光灿烂的冬日,走过弗朗西斯·克里克研究所,你就很容易明白他们为什么这么称呼了。大面积的窗格玻璃在圣潘克拉斯周围的街道上高高竖起,反射出来的阳光照亮了一家生物医学研究机构,而该机构很快就会成为欧洲最大的同类机构……而那坚固的赭石外立面跟许多古老建筑不变的外观相呼应。

 Navigating through the construction site, hard hat perched on my head, I enter the interior. It is hardly less ecclesiastical – a vast nave cuts through the centre of a cavernous atrium, intersected by what looks suspiciously like a transept, while its basement – reaching four floors beneath my feet and set to house a multitude of sensitive scientific instruments – bears more than a passing resemblance to a tremendous network of vaults.

 我穿过施工现场,戴着安全帽,进入到内部。这座建筑的风格跟教堂不无关系——酷似教堂大型正厅的部分处于中庭的中心,看起来很像袖廊的通道横穿中庭,脚下是地下结构,多达四层,按规定要放置许多敏感的科学仪器,这里很像一个由拱顶室构成的巨型网络。

 “I do think architecture matters,” says Sir Paul Nurse, former president of the Royal Society, Nobel laureate and now director of the Crick – to which his name has somewhat wittily been attached – when we meet in his temporary office at the Wellcome Trust. “You need to go into a building and feel inspiration. That is what is so beautiful about a medieval cathedral – you are inspired whatever your religious beliefs might be.”

 保罗·纳斯爵士是诺贝尔奖得主,前英国皇家学会主席,现任弗朗西斯·克里克研究所所长,因此他的名字就自然地跟该研究所联系起来。纳斯的临时办公室设在威康信托基金会,我们在这里会面时,他说:“我们确实考虑到建筑问题,你需要到楼里面去找一下灵感。这就是中世纪大教堂的美妙之处——不论你的信仰是什么,都可以激发你的灵感。”

 For ?700m, however, it isn’t surprising that Nurse is hoping the building will do more than lift the spirits. Boasting state-of-the-art equipment, high-containment labs and animal facilities to house rodents, zebrafish and even opossums, the Crick’s ambitions are as lofty as its rafters. With around 1,500 scientists and staff tackling areas ranging from cancer research to neuroscience, pandemics, and even bold new projects to use genome-editing techniques on human embryos, life itself will be under the microscope.

 然而,这座建筑花费了7亿英镑,因此纳斯希望这栋楼的功能不仅仅是激发灵感,这是不足为奇的。弗朗西斯·克里克研究所拥有最先进的设备、高度封闭的实验室和容纳啮齿动物、斑马鱼的场所,甚至拥有专门容纳负鼠的场所,因而该研究所的志向之高,就像其楼顶上的椽子。从癌症研究到神经科学、流行病,甚至再到对人类胚胎实施基因编辑技术等大胆的新项目,随着大约1,500名科学家和工作人员对医学各领域的问题进行解决,生命本身将置于显微镜之下。

 It’s certainly a feat of teamwork. A joint endeavour between six founding bodies – the Wellcome Trust, Medical Research Council and Cancer Research UK, together with King’s, University and Imperial Colleges, London – the swish institute will supersede what were venerable, but ageing, MRC facilities at Mill Hill, north London, and the two sites that made up Cancer Research’s London Research Institute, bringing together their existing staff with newly recruited researchers and seconded university academics. It’s a point Nurse is quick to seize on. “People forget that the money is already there – it is not new money for the operations,” he says. “It is new money for the buildings, but it is just replacing what’s there.”

 当然,这是一次团队合作的壮举,是六个创建机构共同努力的结果。这六个机构是:医学研究理事会、英国癌症研究中心、威康信托基金会、伦敦大学学院、伦敦帝国学院和伦敦国王学院。医学研究理事会的设施位于伦敦北部的磨坊山,该理事会曾经受人尊重,但其设施正在趋于老化。这家漂亮的研究所将会取代医学研究理事会和伦敦癌症研究所的两个办事处,将其现有的人员集中起来,跟新招募的研究人员和临时调派的大学学者一起工作。纳斯很快抓住这一点切入话题,他说:“人们忘记了资金已经到位,对于研究工作来讲,这不是新筹集的资金;对于这些建筑来说,这的确是新筹集的资金,但是新的资金正在不断地筹集到位。”

 But there are perhaps inevitably concerns. “I think one of the biggest risks is that we have got some of the biggest funders supporting the Crick institute, and I think there is a danger they are going to want to support things happening in that institute and perhaps we are going to create even more of a have/have not scientific society,” says Professor Jenny Southgate, director of the Jack Birch unit for molecular carcinogenesis at the University of York.

 然而,或许不可避免地存在某些担忧。约克大学杰克·伯奇分子致癌研究所所长珍妮·索斯盖特教授说:“我认为,最大的风险之一是:我们弗朗西斯·克里克研究所得到了一些最大资助机构的支持,我想这些资助机构希望对研究所里的研究成果予以支持,而风险是在很大程度上我们或许正在创建一个可有可无的科学团体。”

 Robert Kelsh, professor of stem cell and developmental genetics at the University of Bath, also has mixed feelings: “I think the Crick is great; it will do tremendously well,” he says. “[But] I think people, especially outside London, have some concerns about it – just the total amount of grant funding that it will inevitably be able to attract.” After all, when it comes to landing grants “the Crick has all the advantages,” he adds, comparing the extent of the institute’s resources to those of universities. I do think architecture matters. You need to go into a building and feel inspiration.

 巴斯大学干细胞与发育遗传学教授罗伯特·凯尔什也怀有一种复杂的感受。他说:“弗朗西斯·克里克研究所是很棒的,它会运行得极其顺利。但是我认为,人们(尤其是伦敦之外的人们)对此会有些担忧,该研究所不可避免地要吸收资助,资助总额之大,可以想象。”凯尔什将该研究所资源的多少跟大学的资源进行了对比,然后他接着说:“毕竟,涉及到获得资助的问题,弗朗西斯·克里克研究所具有绝对优势。”我的确认为建筑风格是很重要的,你进去之后需要找到灵感。

 Sir Paul Nurse

 保罗·纳斯爵士

 Experiments lie at the heart of the Crick – and Nurse is embarking on a very large one of his own. Sweeping away departmental divisions ubiquitous in academia, he hopes to hand the purse strings back to the institute’s 120 group leaders rather than having them controlled by a few departmental “barons”. The need to chase grant after grant, a common chore for scientists to raise cash for their studies, will be mitigated by a pot of core funding for each lab. Publishing pressures will be diminished, too, with researchers freed from the need to repeatedly jump over the hurdles of peer review to garner support, allowing them instead to focus on adventurous, longer-term research. “We will capture high-profile papers too, but what the focus is [on] is not using surrogates, not using the Nature reviewing process to judge your own work,” Nurse says, adding that with a senior management team including winners of the prestigious Louis-Jeantet Prize and a veritable gaggle of fellows of the Royal Society to sniff out good research: “We have pretty good noses”.

 弗朗西斯·克里克研究所的中心任务是做试验,而纳斯也正在着手进行自己的一项大型试验。纳斯扫除了学术环境中普遍存在的部门之分,他希望将财务控制权下放到研究所120个试验小组组长的手中,而不是让少数部门主管来控制财权。科学家们需要一笔接一笔地争取资助,为自己的研究筹集现金,这对于他们来说是司空见惯的烦心事。研究所里每个实验室都有一笔核心资助,因此争取资助的问题将会得到缓解。成果发表的压力也会减轻,因为研究人员不必反复通过同行审核的障碍,就可以获得资助,允许他们专注于需要冒险精神的长期研究。纳斯说:“我们也会注意到备受瞩目的论文,但是重点在于我们不利用代理单位,不利用《自然》杂志的审核程序来判断你的研究工作做得如何。”纳斯接着说:我们拥有一支资深的管理团队,包括享有声望的路易斯-让泰医学奖获得者和一组名副其实的皇家学会会员,由他们来鉴定高质量的研究。他说:“我们的鉴定水平相当高!”

 And there’s more. Instead of departments, scientists will flit between so-called “interest groups” as their work develops, while researchers in different fields have been carefully allocated offices and labs in a manner that would rival the most painstaking of seating plans. The upshot, Nurse hopes, will be “gentle anarchy”. It could be a description of Nurse himself. In the midst of his explanations, he looks around for a way to illustrate his plan to hasten the translation of promising research into innovations and therapies. I proffer my pen but he seizes instead on a selection of mugs that he proceeds to scatter over the table. “Let’s say this table represents knowledge,” he begins, rapidly shuffling his props around like a magician embarking on the three-cup trick.

 此外,我们认真地为不同领域的研究人员分配了办公室和实验室,但分配起来相当艰难,不亚于最为艰难的座次安排任务。尽管如此,不同于部门与部门之间的情况,随着研究工作的展开,科学家们将穿梭于所谓的“兴趣小组”之间。纳斯希望,最终会产生一种“轻度无政府”的状态。这可能也是对纳斯本人的描述——他在解释时,看看周围,企图寻找一种方式来描述自己的计划,想让我明白如何加快把有前途的研究转化为创新成果和具体疗法。我为他提供我自己的钢笔,可是他却有选择地拿起几只茶杯,相继地散摆在桌子上。“比如说,这张桌子代表知识。”他开始解释,并快速地到处移动他的“道具”,就像魔术师正在进行那种三只茶杯的杂耍。

 His idea turns out to be far less convoluted than his method of explanation. Instead of embracing purely blue-sky research, or focusing on the pursuit of distant goals, the Crick, says Nurse, will take a different tack. Here, scientists will work closely with a team of experts as they pursue their research, helping to spot and develop discoveries with clinical potential or that could prove handy in other fields. “We actually reward people who make discoveries, but we always look to see whether those discoveries can lead to translation too.”

 其实,纳斯的想法远远不像他所解释的那样复杂。纳斯称:弗朗西斯·克里克研究所将会采取不同的合作方式,不会接受完全不切实际的研究,也不会侧重于追求遥远的目标。在这里,科学家一边展开自己的研究,一边跟一个专家小组进行密切合作,这样有助于做出发现,做出具有潜在临床意义的发现或者经证明可用于其他领域的发现。纳斯说:“事实上,我们会对那些做出发现的人予以奖励,但是我们总是还要着眼于这些发现能否实现转化。”

 What’s more, Nurse adds, collaborations with pharmaceutical companies will offer Crick scientists the chance to benefit from the expertise of industry. I suggest that not everyone will warm to the idea of cosying up to big pharma, but Nurse – unsurprisingly – isn’t buying it. “What we are doing is saying there is creative work going on in the big companies with creative people, we are creative people working often with somewhat different objectives – there can be no harm in mixing us together, we control our IP [intellectual property].”

 纳斯还说:更重要的是,跟制药公司进行合作会为研究所的科学家提供机会,他们会受益于制药行业的专业知识。我提出:并不是每个人都对接近企业的想法感兴趣。但是不出所料,纳斯不以为然。他说:“我们这样做的意思是,大型制药公司拥有富有创造性的人物,正在进行富有创造性的研究;我们也都是富有创造性的人,但在某种程度上我们的研究有着不同的目标——我们双方合作起来没有害处,我们仍然控制着我们的知识产权。”

 It’s a daring vision, but not an entirely unprecedented one. “The Crick’s idea is not completely new at all, but I would also argue it is proven,” says Kelsh, citing his own experiences of a similar interdisciplinary approach at other laboratories. Nurse, too, believes the Crick is built on solid foundations. “All I have done is stolen best practice as I see it from around the world,” he says, citing New York’s Rockefeller University (where he was president for eight years) and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory among his inspirations. His plan, however, is embedded not only in the ethos of the Crick, but in the building itself. Gleaming staircases snake up to the uppermost floors, encouraging chance encounters between scientists and – it is hoped – new collaborations. Sleek, white-topped benches await the arrival of their many and varied workers, while walls open out like the secret cabinets of a speakeasy bar to reveal whiteboards for the scribblings of what, its creators no doubt fervently hope, will be the musings of spontaneous genius.

 这是一个大胆的设想,但并非完全史无前例。凯尔什在其他实验室曾经采用过类似的跨学科方法,他根据自己的经历说道:“弗朗西斯·克里克研究所的想法根本不是全新的,但是我也认为这是经过证实的想法。”纳斯也认为,弗朗西斯·克里克研究所是建立在坚实基础之上的。在曾经给予纳斯灵感的单位中,他提到纽约洛克菲勒大学(曾经在该校任8年校长)和欧洲分子生物学实验室,他说:“我所做的一切,不过就是在全世界看到了最佳操作方式,并将其‘偷’了过来。”然而,他的计划不仅仅体现在弗朗西斯·克里克研究所的团体精神上,而且也体现在这座建筑本身中。闪光的楼梯蜿蜒上升至顶层,希望能够为科学家们之间增加偶遇的机会和新的合作机会。光洁的白色长凳等待着许多不同领域的工作人员到来,墙壁好像地下酒吧的秘密橱柜那样伸展出去,白色书写板显现出来,供研究人员写写画画,所记下的内容有可能是天才研究人员在无意识的情况下获得的灵感,这无疑也是书写板创设者的热切希望。

 But you can only lead a horse to water. “To an extent I think it is marvellous putting everyone together. There should be massive synergy from having such a lot of different expertise, people with different skills, different thoughts, different backgrounds, it should be fantastic,” says Southgate. “But you can’t force people to work together, and just putting them in the same room doesn’t mean that is going to happen.”

 然而,你只能把一匹马带到水边,却不能强迫它喝水。“在一定程度上,我认为把大家集中到一起是一件很了不起的事情。身怀不同技能的人们有着不同的思维方式和不同的背景,他们拥有许多不同的专业知识,应该能够发挥巨大的协同作用,这应该是一件非同寻常的事情。”索斯盖特说,“但是,你无法强迫人们去合作,仅仅将他们置于同一个房间,并不意味着会产生合作。”

 Might scientists elsewhere in the UK also be a bit, well, miffed that London has yet another plump institute to its name? “What is the engine room of research? It is 20-35-year-olds,” Nurse parries. “They like London. Let’s be blunt about it. And if I am trying to attract from New York or Tokyo or Berlin I am not going to do it if I am somewhere in the sticks.” Not only will the location allow scientists to easily visit or receive guests from other institutes around the country but, Nurse insists, the Crick will fuel research nationwide by pumping out imaginative, risk-taking researchers, as many of the new group leaders will be recruited for a fixed stint of 12 years. “It is a training institute that takes scientists at a rather early stage in their careers, where they are often creative but can be vulnerable, a bit green, [and] gives them really good training, good mentoring, good support,” says Nurse. “We then try to export them to universities elsewhere in the country.”

 又有一家配置完备的研究所归于伦敦的地盘上,那么,英国其他地方的科学家会不会有点恼火呢?“哪些人是搞研究的中坚力量呢?是20岁至35岁的科学家,他们喜欢伦敦。”纳斯回避道,“对此,我们就直言不讳了:目前我正在努力从纽约或东京或柏林吸引人才,但是如果我们研究所处于偏僻地区,我就不会这么做了。”纳斯坚持认为:这个位置不仅容易使科学家们前来访问、容易接待全国其他研究所的客人,而且该研究所将会促进研究在全国范围内展开,请出富有想象力、具有冒险精神的研究人员,例如,我们将要招聘许多研究组织的新任领导人,固定聘期为12年。“我们的研究所是一个培训机构,收录处于事业早期的科学家,在这个阶段,他们通常具有创造性,但可能还会有些脆弱,有点经验不足,研究所会为他们提供真正的高质量培训和指导。”纳斯说,“然后,我们再尽量将他们输送到英国其他地方的大学中。”

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 However, as Southgate points out, the approach brings pressures of its own for researchers. “They are going to have six years, and a potential further six, living in London with no security of tenure, knowing that they are going to have to move and find something after that. I think that creates pressures, I don’t think it is very family friendly.”

 然而,正如索斯盖特指出的那样:这个方法本身会给研究人员带来压力。她说:“他们将不得不在伦敦生活六年,而且之后还有可能再生活六年,没有长期聘用的保障,他们知道有朝一日不得不搬走,去找别的工作。我认为这会为他们造成压力,这对家庭是不太有利的。”

 Enticing bright young researchers to London is one thing; making it affordable in a city of soaring housing costs is another. His dream, Nurse says, is to get hold of a set of apartments to house newcomers to the UK while they find their feet. “I tried to get that money from funders but they weren’t prepared to do that.” He looks a little dejected, but he hasn’t quite given up on his scheme. “[It’s] back in my head,” he says, prodding his somewhat dishevelled mop of white hair. Other hurdles have been met with a more bullish resilience. At the mention of Crossrail 2, the proposed train line that will cut across the city, he bristles. “When we put the building up, Crossrail 2 was going south of the Euston road. And then what happens is Crossrail 2 changes its mind and drives a tunnel right under our most sensitive part.” That, he says, would be disastrous. “It will stop us working probably during construction, maybe for years.” The line, Nurse maintains, will simply have to find another route. “They are really angry with us because they are having to think about it,” he says. It isn’t only the rail companies that have attempted to undermine the Crick. Some, I point out, are concerned it will become an institute simply too big to fail.

 吸引聪明年轻的研究人员到伦敦是一回事,在住房费用飙升的城市里能否使他们担负得起是另外一回事。纳斯说:他的梦想就是搞到一栋公寓,在新来的研究人员适应新环境期间,为他们提供住所。“我曾努力从资助单位搞到那笔钱,但是那些单位都不愿意出资。”他看起来面带一些失望的样子,但他也没有完全放弃自己的计划,“这事一直浮现于我的脑海中。”他一边说,一边用手指戳着他那有些蓬乱的白发。对于其他的障碍,在应对能力上他是比较有信心的。横贯铁路2号线是一条打算铺设的铁路线,将要横穿伦敦市。一提到这条铁路线,纳斯就怒不可遏。“当我们建设这幢楼房的时候,横贯铁路2号线本来是在尤斯顿路之南穿过的,可是后来所发生的情况是:横贯铁路2号线的承建公司改变了主意,要在我们大楼最敏感的区域下面挖一条隧道。”他说,这将会造成灾难性的破坏,“在搞建设期间,我们很可能会无法正常施工,或许一耽搁就是几年。”纳斯坚持认为,这条铁路只需寻找另外一条路线即可。他说:“他们真的对我们很生气,因为他们不得不考虑变换路线了。”然而,不仅仅是铁路公司企图暗中破坏弗朗西斯·克里克研究所……我指出:有些人担心该研究所将会变得规模太大,因而不会倒闭。

 “Actually, I coined that term,” he interjects with something verging on amusement. “I said it will be too big to fail because we have to make it work.”

 “其实,那个说法是我编造的。”纳斯用近乎玩笑的语气打断我的话,“我说过研究所会变得规模太大而不会倒闭,是因为我们不得不使其发挥作用。”

 And if it doesn’t? “If a university stops working properly, they sort it out. If a hospital doesn’t work properly, they sort it out. If this doesn’t work properly, you’d sort it out,” he says. Nurse is nothing if not pragmatic. “If the philosophy is wrong, we will learn from it and change it. I am not chiselling this into my tombstone. I think we should try this and if it works then it will be, I think, a big step forward. If there are aspects that don’t, then we can modify them. And if it all doesn’t work, they can sack me.”

 要是不能发挥作用怎么办?纳斯说:“如果一所大学不能正常发挥作用,我们就会把它踢出去;如果一家医院不能正常发挥作用,我们也会把它踢出去;如果这个方法不能正常发挥作用,我们同样也会把它踢出去!”如果不务实的话,纳斯就是一个不值得一提的人了。“如果理念错了,我们会从中吸取教训,做出改革,但我不会把这一点刻进墓碑。我想我们可以对此进行尝试,如果能够行得通,那么我认为这就是向前跨出了一大步。如果有某些方面无法发挥作用,那么我们可以对其进行修改。如果这一切都无法发挥作用,我也会被踢出去!”

 Quite what success will look like is another matter – particularly with traditional metrics, such as publishing records, given less credence. Nurse, however, is blunt. “We will be reviewed every five years by our funders, so if we haven’t succeeded by producing high-quality work – some of which will be in those high-profile journals, of course – we will have failed. We have to pass and in my view we have to pass it at a higher level of standard than any university in the land, otherwise there is no point in having us.”

 的确,到底怎样才算成功是另外一回事,尤其是在利用传统的指标(如:发表记录)进行衡量、在互相之间信任不足的情况下,更是如此。然而,纳斯却很坦率:“每隔五年,都会由我们的资助单位进行审核,因此如果我们没有顺利地拿出高质量研究成果,我们就算失败了——当然,其中某些成果还要发表在高知名度的期刊上。我们不得不通过审核,而且在我看来我们不得不高标准地通过审核,要比全国任何大学的标准都要高,不然的话,成立我们的研究所就没有任何意义了。”

 In many ways, the Crick is the natural home for big thinkers. Named after one Nobel laureate and directed by another, it’s garnered support from some of the biggest names in science. Indeed, among its donors is Francis Crick’s DNA co-pioneer, James Watson, who offered a donation to pay for a portrait of his friend to hang in the institute.

 在许多方面,弗朗西斯·克里克研究所是大思想家们实实在在的家园,用一位诺贝尔奖得主的名字命名,由另一位诺贝尔奖得主来管理,得到了一些科学界最享有盛名的人物给予的支持。事实上,捐赠者之一就是跟弗朗西斯·克里克一起搞DNA研究的先驱——詹姆斯·沃森(James Watson),他的赠品是出资购买的朋友克里克的一幅画像,即将挂在研究所。

 “Typically Jim, he was making jokes and saying wouldn’t it be fun to have Crick in his bath,” says Nurse. The plans for the final portrait, however, are rather less eccentric. Leaning out from in front of a blackboard, his hands resting on his seminal papers, Crick gazes forth. A tie bearing the double-helix is looped around his neck. And on his face, it seems, is a look of quiet expectation.

 纳斯说:“通常情况下,吉姆(詹姆斯的昵称)会开玩笑说‘弄一张克里克洗澡时的画像,岂不是很有趣吗?’”然而,最终的画像计划远没有那么异乎寻常。克里克站在一块黑板前面,身体前倾,他的双手放在他那具有重大影响的论文上,眼睛注视着前方,套在脖子上的领带带有双螺旋图案,他的脸上好像带有一种静静期待的表情。

   
译自:英国《卫报》官网(17 February 2016 07.59 GMT

原著:Nicola Davis

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